A History of Metal. Metallurgy for the Non-Metallurgists. Learning Objectives. After completing this lesson, students will be able to: Summarize the history of metallurgy from ancient to modern times. Define such terms as metal, ore, alloy, refining, and smelting
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Metallurgy for the Non-Metallurgists
A bronze Kuei handled vessel on a rectangular plinth (34.30 44.50 cm) cast in China in the 7th century B.C. (Courtesy of The Cleveland Museum of Art, Leonard C. Hanna, Jr. Fund, 1974).
Lead blast furnace, open-top type.
Early American chimney or blast furnace
Schematic of a blast furnace
The temperatures in a blast furnace range from 400–500 °C (750–930
°F) at the top, where the gasses have cooled by flowing through tons of unreactedcharge materials, to near 2000 °C (3630 °F) where the air is blown
into the reaction zone through the tuyeres
Sketch from De Re Metallica showing soot emissions from a medieval
Fig. 7 Micrograph showing typical slag inclusions in wrought iron. Original
Sketch from De Re Metallica showing a medieval gold sluicing operation
Micrographs of nonmetallic inclusions in typical, commercially pure aluminum. Original magnification: 500×. (a) Annealed structure. (b) Cold worked structure
Cross-sectional representation of various zones through the earth
Composition of the earth’s crust