Monitoring activities of running waters in sweden
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Monitoring activities of running waters in Sweden. Leonard Sandin Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden. Outline. Sampling methods macroinvertebrates Taxonomic resolution Classification system Reference site selection/criteria Monitoring program

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Monitoring activities of running waters in sweden

Monitoring activities of running waters in Sweden

Leonard Sandin

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Uppsala, Sweden


Outline
Outline

  • Sampling methods macroinvertebrates

  • Taxonomic resolution

  • Classification system

  • Reference site selection/criteria

  • Monitoring program

  • Supporting information


Macroinvertebrate sampling method
Macroinvertebrate samplingmethod

  • Standardized kick-sampling

    • SSEN 27828

  • 1 m * 1 min and 5 samples

  • Preferably hard-bottom

  • 0,5 mm mesh

  • Autumn sampling

  • Sorting 2 h then subsampling (in the national surveys)


Taxonomic resolution
Taxonomic resolution

  • Predetermined taxa list (~500)

  • Expert group decided on the list

  • Based on:

    • Relatively easy to determine

    • Gives “extra” ecological information

    • Part of indices/metrics


Ecological quality criteria
Ecological quality criteria

  • New system will be adopted from 2007 (in revision at the moment)

  • Includes three metrics/indices:

    • ASPT Ecological quality

    • DJ index Eutrophication

    • MISA index Acidification/Acidity

  • Should be sampled at least once in the autumn each year


Types ecoregions
TypesEcoregions

20 Borealic uplands


Ecoregions

22 Fennoscandian shield


Ecoregions

14 Central plains


Aspt dj index
ASPT & DJ index

  • ASPT:

    • Armitage et al. 1983

    • Family level index

    • Scoring system (1-10) for each family

    • Divided by no of scoring families

  • DJ index

    • Dahl & Johnson 2005

    • Multimetric index for eutrophication

    • Five different parts:

    • No of EPT taxa, relative abundance of Crustacea, rel. abund. EPT taxa, ASPT, and Saprobix index (Zelinka & Marvan 1961)

    • Each index scores 1-3

    • Sum from 5 (lowest/worst) to 15 (highest/best quality)


Dj index
DJ index

The DJ index has to be re-scaled by:

Taking (reference value – 5) / (index value -5)


Misa index
MISA index

  • Johnson & Goedkoop 2005

  • Multimetric index

  • Includes six parts/indices:

    • No of families, no of taxa of Gastropoda, no of taxa of Ephemeroptera, the ratio of the relative abundance of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera, the AWIC index [Dawy-Bowker et al 2005 relative abundance of shredders

    • Each index is normalised to be between 0-10

    • Rescaling: MISA = 10 x sum indexnorm / 6

    • Final score between 0-100



Reference values
Reference values

  • Ecoregion 14

    • ASPT: 5.37

    • DJ index: 10

    • MISA: 47.5

  • Ecoregion 22

    • ASPT: 6.53

    • DJ index: 14

    • MISA: 47.5

  • Ecoregion 20

    • ASPT: 6.67

    • DJ index: 14

    • MISA: 47.5



Final ecological quality
Final ecological quality

One-out-all-out among the three indices/metrics


Calculating the indices
Calculating the indices

  • www.aqem.de

  • ASTERICS software



National monitoring program
National monitoring program

  • Three levels:

    • National surveys

    • Trend stations

    • ?????????


National surveys
National surveys

  • Lake inventories since 1972

  • Biology – first time 1995

  • Repeated 2000

  • Benthic macroinvertebrates

  • 700 streams and 700 lakes

  • 2005 only lake chemistry again


Sampling strategy
Sampling strategy

  • Streams stratified by catchment area

    • 350 with areas 15-50 km2

    • 350 with areas 50-250km2

  • Randomly selected point

  • Sampling 100-600 m upstream


Sampling sites streams national survey
Sampling sites/streamsNational survey


Changing sampling sites
Changing sampling sites?

  • 606 sites included in analysis

  • 1995: county of Västernorrland removed

  • Site suitability assessed based on substratum

    • Blocks > 200 mm or Sand and silt < 2 mm

  • Samples could be moved further upstream


Weather
Weather

  • Autumn 2000 among the wettest during the 20th century

  • Yearly precipitation at most 160 – 170 % of normal

  • Air temperature 1.6 to 2.1 °C above normal

  • Water temperature 3 °C above normal in streams

  • 1995: precipitation and temperature near normal

Runoff

(l/km2, s)

From Wilander et al. 2003


Weather1
Weather

  • Main problem in

    south-west 2000

1995

2000

  • Rölanda å

  • County of

  • Västra Götaland


Trend stations
Trend stations

  • 69 streams

  • Across Sweden

  • Water chemistry (all)

  • Metals (30 stations)

  • Macroinvertebrates and phytobenthos (48 stations)

  • Electrofishing (28 stations – all with bf sampling)

  • Macroinvertebrates and metals (16 stations)


Trend stations1
Trend stations

  • 40 sites with catchment area < 300 km2

  • 6 further sites catchment area < 1000 km2

  • 1 site with catchment area 1260 km2

  • 1 site with catchment area 19825 km2 (Ljusnan)

  • Reasons:

    • Existing long time series

    • NATURA 2000 sites

    • Trout, Pearl mussels, Salmon, European crayfish

    • Large amount of existing catchment info available

    • Used for earlier international reporting



Liming references
Liming references

  • 19 streams

  • Water chemistry

  • Metals

  • Phytobenthos

  • Benthic macroinvertebrates

  • Fish


Physical parameters
Physical parameters

  • Standardised field protocol:

    • Sampling site information

    • In stream vegetation

    • Substratum

    • Riparian zone 0-5 meter perpendicular to the stream

    • Near stream zone 0-30 meter perpendicular to the stream


Sampling site information
Sampling site information

  • Site name

  • Width (sampling site) and length (Sampling site)

  • Stream width

  • Water level (normal/low/high)

  • Water depth (mean for site and maximum)

  • Velocity (0 = 0 m/s, 1 < 0.2 m/s, 2 0.2-0.7 m/s, 3 > 0.7 m/s)

  • Turbidity (clear, turbid, very turbid)

  • Water colour (clear, coloured, very coloured)

  • Water temperature


Substratum in stream vegetation
Substratum/ in stream vegetation

  • Classification 0 = absent, 1 < 5% cover, 2 5-50 % cover, 3 > 50% cover

  • Substratum: 11 classes from fine sediment (< 0.06 mm) to rock (> 2000 mm)

  • In stream vegetation: 6 vegetation types

    • Above water vegetation, long shoot vegetation, floating leaved, rosette vegetation, mosses, benthic algae

  • Organic material

    • Fine detritus, coarse detritus, fine dead wood, coarse dead wood


Riparian zone
Riparian zone

  • Same cover classes

    • Trees

    • Bushes

    • Grasses

    • Other vegetation types (specify)

    • Others (stone, agricultural land, without vegetation etc)

  • Shadow (cover as above)


Near stream zone
Near stream zone

  • Same cover classes

  • 13 land-use classes (e.g.):

    • Deciduous forest

    • Coniferous forest

    • Wetlands

    • Agricultural land

    • Grassland

    • Heath

    • Artificial land


Water chemistry parameters
Water chemistry parameters

  • pH, alkalinity

  • Conductivity

  • Ca, Mg, Na, K

  • SO4, Cl, F, Si

  • NH4-N, NO2+NO3, Total N, Total P

  • Absorbance

  • TOC


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