Individual approaches to physical activity promotion
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INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROMOTION. # 4. What you need to know. Meaning of self-efficacy Individual approaches to promoting physical activity Theoretical models (Stages of Change) Print and web-based media Counselling. Self-Efficacy. Feelings of self-value or self-worth

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INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROMOTION

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INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROMOTION

# 4


What you need to know

  • Meaning of self-efficacy

  • Individual approaches to promoting physical activity

    • Theoretical models (Stages of Change)

    • Print and web-based media

    • Counselling


Self-Efficacy

  • Feelings of self-value or self-worth

  • Eg: C__________ in your ability to engage in healthy behaviours across a range of challenging situations

  • Self-efficacy increases as you move through the stages of change

  • Active people generally = _______ self-efficacy


Promoting Physical Activity

  • Two main categories of physical activity promotion

    • Individual approaches

      • Strategies to achieve individual ___________ change

      • Most research has focused on changing individual behaviours

      • Eg: theoretical models of individual behaviour change, print and web-based approaches, counselling

    • Population approaches

      • Strategies to achieve changes in _____ populations

      • Came about due to Ottawa Charter in 1986

        • Important to target large groups of people for health benefits

      • Eg: policy, environmental, mass media


Individual

Theoretical models (eg: Stages of Change)

Print and web-based media

Counselling

Population

Policy strategies

Environmental strategies

Mass media

Individual v. Population Approaches

Let’s focus on individual approaches to physical activity promotion…


Individual Approaches to Physical Activity Promotion

  • Many health professionals, health educators, medical practitioners and psychologists focus on changing individuals’ behaviours

    • Eg:

  • Three main approaches

    • Stages of Change theory

    • Print and web-based media

    • Counselling


Also known as

transtheoretical model

Stages of Change Model

  • Describes fundamental processes that an individual goes through to ________ their health behaviours

  • Provides a framework that classifies motivational readiness for behaviour change

  • Six stages

    • Precontemplation

    • Contemplation

    • Preparation

    • Action

    • Maintenance

    • Termination


Stage 1: PrecontemplationNot ready for change!

  • Not considering __________ their __________

  • Have no intention of being more active within the next _____ months

  • Most difficult group

  • Possible Signs

    • Not aware their lack of activity is a ________

    • _______ information and opportunities that could help them start thinking about being more active

    • Family and friends are the people to point out lack of activity and pressure them to start


Stage 2: ContemplationThinking about change

  • Individuals ______________ that they need to become more active

  • Physical activity is considered

  • Weigh-up pros and cons

    • Eg:

  • Intention is to become active, but many people remain in this stage for long periods of time


Stage 3: PreparationPreparing for action

  • People appear to be _______ and __________ for activity

  • A plan is often developed

  • Possible signs

    • Writing down goals

    • Small amounts of activity, but may not be meeting NPAG

      • Eg: 2 physical activity sessions per week


Stage 4: ActionCarrying out the plan

  • Implementing the _______

  • Large amount of effort, time and energy required

  • Attempting to follow NPAG

  • Important to focus on goals

  • Relapse is common


Stage 5: MaintenanceMaintaining a good thing!

  • Person is __________ active as part of their lifestyle

  • Has been meeting NPAG for at least _____ months

  • Continually strives to overcome barriers to avoid moving back to other stages

  • Setting new _______ is important


Stage 6: TerminationMaintaining regular activity for more than 5 years

  • Person has been regularly active for over _____ years

  • It is a part of their everyday lifestyle

  • Setting new goals and rewarding yourself are important

  • Permanent behaviour change has occurred

  • Very few people reach this stage


Relapse

  • Moving back to another stage is common problem

  • Relapse is not failure and occurs most often between stage 2 and 4

  • People that reach maintenance generally only relapse to the preparation stage


Print and Web-Based Media

  • Print materials

    • Booklets, brochures, handouts

  • Available from:

    • Community-based recreational centres

    • Health care providers

    • Schools and workplaces

  • Advantages:

  • Disadvantages:

  • Web-based media

    • Internet, email

  • Advantages:

  • Disadvantages:


  • Counselling

    • Health professional counselling

      • Doctors, personal trainers, physiotherapist, etc

    • Very effective

      • Written advice, activity calendars, exercises, DVDs

    • Advantages:

    • Disadvantages:

  • Telephone counselling and automated telephone-delivered advice

    • Follow-up from visit or on its own

    • Recorded messages and use of key pad to enter information

    • Advantages:

    • Disadvantages:


  • Strategies used in Counselling(using the Stages of Change model)

    • Nelson notes (p.43-49)

    • Coursework 2.1


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