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The NBER Patent Data Project: Past data uses and future plans. Prof. Bronwyn H. Hall University of California at Berkeley, University of Maastricht, NBER, and IFS London. Outline. Currently available NBER patent data from the USPTO Uses of these data

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The nber patent data project past data uses and future plans

The NBER Patent Data Project: Past data uses and future plans

Prof. Bronwyn H. Hall

University of California at Berkeley, University of Maastricht, NBER, and IFS London


Outline
Outline plans

  • Currently available NBER patent data from the USPTO

  • Uses of these data

  • The new PDP (Patent Data project) at NBER

    • What do we add

    • Where do we stand now

    • discussion

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Nber patent citations data file
NBER Patent Citations Data File plans

  • ~3 million U.S. patents granted between January 1963 and December 1999 (now updated to 2002)

    • Patent number, application and grant dates

    • Name of first inventor; name and type of assignee

    • Country and state of first inventor

    • Main US patent class; number of claims; main IPC class from 76

    • Number of citations, forward and backward; generality and originality measures based on citations

  • All citations made to these patents between 1975 and 1999 (over 16 million)

  • Match of patenting organizations to Compustat (the data set of all firms traded in the U.S. stock market)

  • Available at

    • www.nber.org/patents

    • emlab.berkeley.edu/users/bhhall/bhdata.html (2002 update)

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Use of nber patent data
Use of NBER patent data plans

  • >100 significant research projects (at least one quarter outside the US)

  • ~100 published papers

  • ~50 doctoral dissertations in accounting(1), agric econ (1), econ (22), finance (3), history (1), info tech (1), law(2), management (15), public policy (1), unknown(3)

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Research areas
Research areas plans

  • Positive

    • Individual inventors – migration and co-invention, spillovers

    • Organizations, networks, and innovation

    • Geography of innovation

    • Knowledge spillovers, local and international

    • Citations as a value indicator

  • Normative

    • The patent explosion and its implications for firms, the patent office, and social welfare

    • Patent policy – legal and administrative; the examination process

    • Patent and patent litigation strategy

    • University and laboratory patenting

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The pdp project at nber
The PDP project at NBER plans

  • A new project to update and extend the publicly available USPTO data

  • Principal investigators:

    • Iain Cockburn (BU), Bronwyn Hall (UCB), Walter (Woody) Powell (Stanford), Manuel Trajtenberg (Tel Aviv)

  • Senior investigators:

    • Ajay Agarwal (Toronto), James Bessen (BU), Stuart Graham (GA Tech), Megan Macgarvie (BU)

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Database design principles
Database design principles plans

  • Accessibility

    • Provide public tools (xml based) to allow others to extract data

  • Modularity (as in the OECD/EPO effort)

  • Linking out - an open source-like environment so that others can link their data to the patent data

    • Provide attribution and citation so contributors are recognized

  • Annotation

    • By users – e.g., error correction, identification of SW or gene patents, etc

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Tasks and objectives
Tasks and objectives plans

  • Update existing data to 2007

  • Clean and standardize

  • Compute normalization coefficients to correct for truncation, differences across fields in citation practice

  • Additional data (see next slide)

  • Link outs to

    • Patstat

    • Litigation data

    • Assignee name data

    • Geo-coded data

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Additional data
Additional data plans

  • Detailed tech class info – full set of USPC and IPC codes

  • Priority information

    • Foreign application data

    • Continuation and divisional relationships

  • Multiple assignee information

  • Inventors

    • names for tracking migration, co-invention, etc.

    • detailed location info for all inventors

  • Source of citations (applicants vs. examiners)

  • Attorney and patent agent names

  • Reexamination requests and outcomes

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Currently cleaning raw data
Currently: cleaning raw data plans

  • ASSG - assignees (Cockburn, Agarwal)

  • CLAS - classification (MacGarvie, Hall)

  • FREF - foreign references (Cockburn)

  • GOVT - government interest (Graham)

  • INVT - inventors (Cockburn, Agarwal)

  • LREP - legal representatives (not used for now)

  • OREF - other references (not used for now)

  • PATN - basic patent info (Bessen)

  • PRIR - priority information (Graham)

  • PCTA - PCT information (Cockburn)

  • REIS - reissue information (Graham)

  • RLAP - related application info (Graham)

  • UREF - US references (Cockburn, Trajtenberg)

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Geographical data inventor and assignee address
Geographical data (inventor and assignee address) plans

  • data from USPTO (to be cleaned)

    • City (8000 Munchen?)

    • State (CA vs CA)

    • Country

  • data from non-USPTO sources

    • Regions (SMSA, Canadian provinces, European NUTS/LAU regions)

    • Latitude-longitude coordinates

      • Need to normalize geographical names to match source e.g., Vienna vs. Wien)

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Assignee names
Assignee names plans

  • K U Leuven project for Eurostat OECD/WIPO/EPO consortium

  • Derwent world patent index

    • 117 pages of 4 char codes for std names

    • A large number of rules (Russian inst, Japanese cos, etc.)

    • Rules for nonstandard co codes

  • IFS project – more later

  • One question: what to do about the extended character set?

    • München vs Munich vs Muenchen vs Munchen

    • Derwent uses ue

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