Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
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Mendeleev’s Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev. Modern Russian Table. Stowe Periodic Table. A Spiral Periodic Table. “Mayan” Periodic Table. Period. The Periodic Table. Group or Family. Group or family. Period. Properties of Metals.

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“Mayan” Periodic Table


The Periodic Table

Group or Family

Group or family


Properties of Metals

  • Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity

  • Metals are malleable

  • Metals are ductile

  • Metals have high tensile strength

  • Metals have luster

Examples of Metals

Potassium, K reacts with water and must be stored in kerosene

Copper, Cu, is a relatively soft metal, and a very good electrical conductor.

Zinc, Zn, is more stable than potassium

Mercury, Hg, is the only metal that exists as a liquid at room temperature

Propertiesof Nonmetals

Carbon, the graphite in “pencil lead” is a great example of a nonmetallic element.

  • Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and

  • electricity

  • Nonmetals tend to be brittle

  • Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature

Examples of Nonmetals

Microspheres of phosphorus, P, a reactive nonmetal

Sulfur, S, was once known as “brimstone”

Graphite is not the only pure form of carbon, C. Diamond is also carbon; the color comes from impurities caught within the crystal structure

Properties of Metalloids

Metalloids straddle the border between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.

  • They have properties of both metals and nonmetals.

  • Metalloids are more brittle than metals, less brittle than most nonmetallic solids

  • Metalloids are semiconductors of electricity

  • Some metalloids possess metallic luster

Silicon, Si – A Metalloid

  • Silicon has metallic luster

  • Silicon is brittle like a nonmetal

  • Silicon is a semiconductor of electricity

Other metalloids include:

  • Boron, B

  • Germanium, Ge

  • Arsenic, As

  • Antimony, Sb

  • Tellurium, Te

The Properties of a Group: the Alkali Metals

  • Easily lose valence electron (Reducing agents) +1

  • Soft enough to cut with a knife

  • React violently with water

  • Stored in Oil

  • React with halogens to form salts

The Properties of a Group IIA: Alkaline Earth Metals

2 e- in outer shell

Will lose 2 e- : +2

Group IIIA: The Boron Family

3 e- in the outer shell

B- metalloid, All other elements are metals, will form then 3+ ions

Al- 3rd most abundant element in earth’s crust, very strong in alloys, doesn’t corrode easily

Group IVA: Carbon Family

4 e- in outer shell

Si: 2nd most abundant in Earth’s crust

SiO2 is in sand, semi conductor, silica=glass

Ge: electronic devices

Sn: coats steel for “tin cans”

Pb: In batteries and computer, used to be in paint and gas

Group VA: Nitrogen Family

5 e- in outer shell

N & P: Nonmetals

As & Sb are metalloids

Bi: Metal

N: 79% of earth’s atmosphere, colorless, odorless and diatomic (N2 )

P: in your bones; in fertilizers, detergents, soft drinks

Group VIA: Oxygen Family

6 e- in outer (normally will gain 2e-; 2- charge then)

O, S, Se: Nonmetals

Te: metalloid

Po: metal (metalloid)

O: most abundant element on earth, colorless, odorless, diatomic (O2); extremely reactive, O3

S: unpleasant odor; added to natural gas to detect leaks; skunks, rotten eggs

The Properties of Group VIIA: The Halogens

Contain 7 e- in outer shell

Easily gain valence electron

(Oxidizing agents) -1

Can be prepared from their “salt”

NaCl  Cl2

NaF  F2

 KBr  Br2

Group VIIIA: Noble Gases

Inert Elements

Filled Outer Energy (filled s and p’s)

8e- in outer shell; chemically inactive

Determination of Atomic Radius:

Half of the distance between nucli in

covalently bonded diatomic molecule

"covalent atomic radii"

Periodic Trends in Atomic Radius

  • Radius decreases across a period

Increased effective nuclear charge due

to decreased shielding

  • Radius increases down a group

Addition of principal quantum levels

Table of Atomic Radii

Ionization Energy - the energy required to remove an electron from an atom

  • Increases for successive electrons taken from

  • the same atom

  • Tends to increase across a period

Electrons in the same quantum level do

not shield as effectively as electrons in

inner levels

Irregularities at half filled and filled

sublevels due to extra repulsion of

electrons paired in orbitals, making them

easier to remove

  • Tends to decrease down a group

Outer electrons are farther from the


Table of 1st Ionization Energies

Ionization of Magnesium

Mg + 738 kJ  Mg+ + e-

Mg+ + 1451 kJ  Mg2+ + e-

Mg2+ + 7733 kJ  Mg3+ + e-


The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.

Linus Pauling

1901 - 1994


A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical

compound to attract electrons

  • Electronegativities tend to increase across

  • a period

  • Electronegativities tend to decrease down a

  • group or remain the same

Ionic Radii

  • Positively charged ions formed when

  • an atom of a metal loses one or

  • more electrons


  • Smaller than the corresponding

  • atom

  • Negatively charged ions formed

  • when nonmetallic atoms gain one

  • or more electrons


  • Larger than the corresponding

  • atom