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From Al-Khwarizmi to Johannes Kepler

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From Al-Khwarizmi to Johannes Kepler

800 years long journey explained.

By: Bilal Karim Mughal

- 14 Dec 1546 – 24 Oct 1601
- Danish nobleman
- Known for accurate planetary
observations

- Refuted Aristotle and Ptolemy’s
theories about the Universe.

- In November, 1572, Tycho Brahe observed the Supernova SN1572
- Built an observatory
“Uraniborg” in 1576

- Presented Geo-Heliocentric explanation of the Solar System
- Prepared detailed star charts with accurate timings, without any telescope.
- Achieved supreme accuracy in predicting the positions of celestial bodies

- Dec 27, 1571 – Nov 15, 1630
- German Mathematician,
Astronomer, and Astrologer

- Famous for his Laws of Planetary
Motion.

- Worked as Tycho Brahe’s assistant for 2 years
- Tycho did not trust Kepler, allowed him little access to his data
- Tycho Brahe asked him to develop an explanation of the Solar System

- Tycho never believed the Planets to be orbiting the Sun.
- Kepler was unable to match this with Geometrical Models.
- Finally in 1609, Kepler gave Laws of Planetary Motion, describing that the Planets orbit the Sun.

- Was it purely the work of Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler that led to the current understanding of the Solar System?

- Spans over 600 years.
- Significant improvements
in Geometry and Mathematics.

- Development of more
sophisticated instruments like

Sextant, Astrolabe.

- 780 – 850 C.E
- Mathematician, Astronomer,
Geographer

- Developed the Tables for
movements of Sun, Moon

and 5 planets in 830. A.D

- 858 – 929 C.E
- Determined the value of
Solar day to be 365 days, 5 hours,

46 minutes and 24 seconds.

- Made significant advances
in Trigonometry.

- December 7, 903 – May 25, 986
- Wrote “The Book of Fixed Stars”
in 964

- Observed and described the Stars,
their magnitudes,

and their positions

- 940 – 1000 C.E
- Persian Mathematician,
Astronomer

- Accurately computed the
tilt of the Earth’s axis

to be (23.53°) in 994 A.D

- 973 – 1048 C.E
- Believed the Earth rotated
about its own axis and

around the Sun

- Wrote 35 treatises on Astronomy

- Calculated the circumference of Earth
- Believed in spherical Earth therefore
- Also discovered that gravity exists within the heavenly bodies

- 965 – 1040 C.E
- Proposed the Earth's rotation
on its axis in

The Model of the Motions

- 945 – 1020 C.E
- Persian Mathematician, Astronomer
- Suggested for the first time, the heliocentric system,
in which Planets orbit the Sun

- Al-Biruni agreed with his ideas

- 1201 – 1274 C.E
- Built an observatory at Maragha
- Made accurate tables of planetary
motions

- Calculated the Precession of
Equinoxes

- 1394 – 1449 C.E
- In 1424 built an observatory
at Samarkand

- Found the values of trigonometric
tables up to 8 decimal places

- Determined the Earth’s axial tilt to be 23.52 degrees

- Calculated the value of Sidereal year to be 365d, 6h, 10m, 8s (only 62 seconds more than the present estimation)

- 1526 – 1585 C.E
- Built an observatory at Istanbul
- Wrote 33 treatises on Astronomy

- Paved the way for the transfer of Islamic knowledge to the West
- Developed an Astronomical Catalogue more accurate than Nicolaus Copernicus and Tycho Brahe
- Final astronomer of Muslim Era

- Tycho Brahe was the champion in observations
- Kepler was successful in presenting the true image of Solar System
- But the real pioneers of it were Muslim scientists of Medieval times who had researched for more than 400 years and had founded the base for Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler

- Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970)
- Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science by Regis Morelon and RushdiRashed
- The Touch of Midas: Science, Values and Environment in Islam and the West by M.A Kettani
- Astronomy and Mathematics by Carra de Vaux