From al khwarizmi to johannes kepler
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From Al-Khwarizmi to Johannes Kepler. 800 years long journey explained. By: Bilal Karim Mughal. Tycho Brahe. 14 Dec 1546 – 24 Oct 1601 Danish nobleman Known for accurate planetary observations Refuted Aristotle and Ptolemy’s theories about the Universe. Tycho Brahe.

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From Al-Khwarizmi to Johannes Kepler

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From al khwarizmi to johannes kepler

From Al-Khwarizmi to Johannes Kepler

800 years long journey explained.

By: Bilal Karim Mughal


Tycho brahe

Tycho Brahe

  • 14 Dec 1546 – 24 Oct 1601

  • Danish nobleman

  • Known for accurate planetary

    observations

  • Refuted Aristotle and Ptolemy’s

    theories about the Universe.


Tycho brahe1

Tycho Brahe

  • In November, 1572, Tycho Brahe observed the Supernova SN1572

  • Built an observatory

    “Uraniborg” in 1576


Tycho brahe2

Tycho Brahe

  • Presented Geo-Heliocentric explanation of the Solar System

  • Prepared detailed star charts with accurate timings, without any telescope.

  • Achieved supreme accuracy in predicting the positions of celestial bodies


Johannes kepler

Johannes Kepler

  • Dec 27, 1571 – Nov 15, 1630

  • German Mathematician,

    Astronomer, and Astrologer

  • Famous for his Laws of Planetary

    Motion.


Johannes kepler1

Johannes Kepler

  • Worked as Tycho Brahe’s assistant for 2 years

  • Tycho did not trust Kepler, allowed him little access to his data

  • Tycho Brahe asked him to develop an explanation of the Solar System


Johannes kepler2

Johannes Kepler

  • Tycho never believed the Planets to be orbiting the Sun.

  • Kepler was unable to match this with Geometrical Models.

  • Finally in 1609, Kepler gave Laws of Planetary Motion, describing that the Planets orbit the Sun.


The question

The Question

  • Was it purely the work of Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler that led to the current understanding of the Solar System?


Era of muslim scientists

Era of Muslim Scientists

  • Spans over 600 years.

  • Significant improvements

    in Geometry and Mathematics.

  • Development of more

    sophisticated instruments like

    Sextant, Astrolabe.


Muhammad ibn musa al khwarizmi

Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi

  • 780 – 850 C.E

  • Mathematician, Astronomer,

    Geographer

  • Developed the Tables for

    movements of Sun, Moon

    and 5 planets in 830. A.D


Muhammad ibn jabir al battani

Muhammad Ibn Jabir Al Battani

  • 858 – 929 C.E

  • Determined the value of

    Solar day to be 365 days, 5 hours,

    46 minutes and 24 seconds.

  • Made significant advances

    in Trigonometry.


Abd al rehman al sufi

Abd al-Rehman Al Sufi

  • December 7, 903 – May 25, 986

  • Wrote “The Book of Fixed Stars”

    in 964

  • Observed and described the Stars,

    their magnitudes,

    and their positions


Abu mahmud al khujandi

Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi

  • 940 – 1000 C.E

  • Persian Mathematician,

    Astronomer

  • Accurately computed the

    tilt of the Earth’s axis

    to be (23.53°) in 994 A.D


Abu rayhan al biruni

Abu Rayhan Al-Biruni

  • 973 – 1048 C.E

  • Believed the Earth rotated

    about its own axis and

    around the Sun

  • Wrote 35 treatises on Astronomy


Abu rayhan al biruni1

Abu Rayhan Al-Biruni 

  • Calculated the circumference of Earth

  • Believed in spherical Earth therefore

  • Also discovered that gravity exists within the heavenly bodies


Ibn al haytham

Ibn al-Haytham

  • 965 – 1040 C.E

  • Proposed the Earth's rotation 

    on its axis in 

    The Model of the Motions


Abu said al sijzi

Abu Said al-Sijzi

  • 945 – 1020 C.E

  • Persian Mathematician, Astronomer

  • Suggested for the first time, the heliocentric system,

    in which Planets orbit the Sun

  • Al-Biruni agreed with his ideas


Nasir al din al tusi

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

  • 1201 – 1274 C.E

  • Built an observatory at Maragha

  • Made accurate tables of planetary

    motions

  • Calculated the Precession of

    Equinoxes


Mirza muhammad tariq ulugh beg

Mirza Muhammad Tariq Ulugh Beg

  • 1394 – 1449 C.E

  • In 1424 built an observatory

    at Samarkand

  • Found the values of trigonometric

    tables up to 8 decimal places

  • Determined the Earth’s axial tilt to be 23.52 degrees


Mirza muhammad tariq ulugh beg1

Mirza Muhammad Tariq Ulugh Beg

  • Calculated the value of Sidereal year to be 365d, 6h, 10m, 8s (only 62 seconds more than the present estimation)


Taqi al din muhammad ibn ma ruf

Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibnMa'ruf

  • 1526 – 1585 C.E

  • Built an observatory at Istanbul

  • Wrote 33 treatises on Astronomy


Taqi al din muhammad ibn ma ruf1

Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibnMa'ruf

  • Paved the way for the transfer of Islamic knowledge to the West

  • Developed an Astronomical Catalogue more accurate than Nicolaus Copernicus and Tycho Brahe

  • Final astronomer of Muslim Era


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Tycho Brahe was the champion in observations

  • Kepler was successful in presenting the true image of Solar System

  • But the real pioneers of it were Muslim scientists of Medieval times who had researched for more than 400 years and had founded the base for Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler


References

References

  • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970)

  • Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science by Regis Morelon and RushdiRashed

  • The Touch of Midas: Science, Values and Environment in Islam and the West by M.A Kettani

  • Astronomy and Mathematics by Carra de Vaux


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