Culture. A group’s specialized values, beliefs, artifacts, ways of behaving and communicating passed through communication, not genetics. Learning Cultures.
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majority of information carried in explicit verbal messages, with less focus on the situational context.
Self-expression valued. Communicators state opinions and desires directly and strive to persuade others to accept their own viewpoint.
Clear, eloquent speech considered praiseworthy. Verbal fluency admired.
Important information carried in contextual cues time, place relationship, situation. Less reliance on explicit verbal messages.
Communicators abstain from saying “no” directly
Communicators talk “around” the point allowing others to fill in the missing pieces. Ambiguity and use of silence is admired.
Self is separate, unique individual; independent, self-sufficient.
Individual take care of themselves/family
many flexible group memberships; friends based on shared interests & activities.
Reward individual achievement & initiative; individual decision encouraged, credit/ blame assigned individually
People belong to extended families; “we” or group orientation.
Cares for extended family before self.
Emphasis on belonging to a very few permanent in-groups with strong influence over person.
Rewards contribution to group goals & well-being; cooperation with in-group members; group decisions valued; credit/ blame shared.