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Cognitive LOA. Crane 3.1 Cognitive Factors of Memory Myers 8, 9. Cognitive Processes LOA. Crane 3.1. What is Cognitive Psychology?. Concerned with the structure and functions of the mind. How the human mind comes to know things about the world and how it uses this knowledge (C67)

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Cognitive LOA

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Cognitive loa

Cognitive LOA

  • Crane 3.1 Cognitive Factors of Memory

  • Myers 8, 9


Cognitive processes loa

Cognitive Processes LOA

  • Crane 3.1


What is cognitive psychology

What is Cognitive Psychology?

  • Concerned with the structure and functions of the mind.

    • How the human mind comes to know things about the world and how it uses this knowledge (C67)

    • Principle 1: Humans are information processors Mental Processes guide behavior

    • Cognitive Processes: Perception, Thinking, Problem Solving, Memory, Language, and Attention


Information processing

Information Processing

  • Bottom-Up Processing

    • Information comes in via the sensory system

  • Top-Down Processing

    • Information obtained using Bottom-Up is then processed using pre-stored information in memory


Why do false memories occur

Why do False Memories Occur?

  • Memory is Reconstructive in nature

    • People store outlines of memory not exact copies of the event (information is filled in upon recall)

    • Sensory fabrication false memories


How do we study the mind

How do we study the mind?

  • Principle 2: The mind can be studied scientifically by developing theories and using a number of research methods


What about social and cultural factors

What about Social and Cultural Factors?

  • Principle 3: Cognitive Processes are influenced by social and cultural factors

  • Reconstruction occurs differently in each culture

  • Creation of Schemas change memory to fit one’s own culture

    • Reading a book watching a movie


Schema

Schema

  • A concept or framework, built up from experience, about any object, event, person or group. Schemata influence the way we interpret, organize, communicate, and remember information.


T v priority schemata in the challenger study

“T.V. Priority”:Schemata in the Challenger Study

  • Only 21% of subjects had actually first heard about the news on TV

  • BUT, two years later, 45% believed they had first heard about the news on TV

  • http://pagerankstudio.com/Blog/2010/05/false-memory/


Cognitive loa

Schemata and Memory

(Anderson & Pichert, 1978)

  • Subjects asked to adopt a particular identity:

    • Home-buyer

    • Burglar

  • Then read a passage about two boys playing hooky from school...


What do you remember

What do you remember?

  • Burglar Group:

  • Homebuyer Group:


Discussion

Discussion

  • Classical Conditioning

  • Operant Conditioning


What do you remember1

What do you remember?

  • Burglar Group

  • Homebuyer Group


Cognitive loa

Identity

Schemata and Memory

(Anderson & Pichert, 1978)

Recall #1

Proportion Recalled

Items


Cognitive loa

First identity/second identity

Change in proportion recalled

Items

Schemata and Memory

(Anderson & Prichert, 1978)

Distracter task....then....switch perspectives and try to recall again


Culturally biased schemas

Culturally biased Schemas

  • Etic: Something common to all cultures

    • Ie. Stress

  • Emic: How different cultures experience something

    • Ie. Perception of stress


Schema theory hw

Schema Theory HW

  • Find two studies on Schema Theory…be able to evaluate this theory with regard to the studies

    • Know what the study is about

      • Who, aim, hypothesis, findings?

    • Be able to apply results to Schema Theory

      • How does it support Schema Theory?


Schema theory and memory

Schema Theory and Memory

  • Memory Processes

    • Encoding (put into memory) 

    • Storage (maintain in memory) 

    • Retrieval (recover from memory) 

  • Schema processing affects memory at all stages


Multi store model of memory

Multi-store Model of Memory

  • Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Crane (p.73)

  • Two assumptions

    • Memory consists of separate stores

      • Attention, coding, rehearsal

    • Memory processes are sequential


Multi store attention

Multi-store (Attention)

  • Lightbulb

  • Tractor

  • Tape

  • Dog

  • Jelly

  • Map

  • Desk

  • Shoe


Multi store attention1

Multi-store (Attention)

  • Lightbulb

  • Tractor

  • Tape

  • Dog

  • Jelly

  • Map

  • Desk

  • Shoe


Multi store coding

Multi-store (Coding)

  • Flashlight

  • Lightbulb

  • Batteries

  • Electricity

  • Dog

  • Teeth

  • Tail

  • Leash


Multi store coding1

Multi-store (Coding)

  • Flashlight

  • Lightbulb

  • Batteries

  • Electricity

  • Dog

  • Teeth

  • Tail

  • Leash


Multi store rehersal

Multi-store (Rehersal)

  • Remember the following numbers

  • 8-6-7-5-3-0-9

  • You got it???


Multi store rehersal1

Multi-store (Rehersal)

  • Remember the following numbers

  • 8-6-7-5-3-0-9

  • You got it???


Multi store cont

Multi-Store Cont.

  • Sensory Memory

    • Modality Specific (senses)

  • Short-term Memory Store

    • 6 or 7 items (6-12 seconds)

  • Long-term Memory Store

    • Unlimited, stored in outline form

    • Distortion occurs when retrieved


Working memory model

Working Memory Model

  • Beddeley and Hitch (1974) (Crane, p.73)

  • Central Executive—focus on attention control

    • Automatic Level—habitual

    • Supervisory Attentional Level—new strategies


Working memory cont

Working Memory Cont.

  • Phonological Loop

    • Articulatory control system (inner voice)

      • Holds information in a verbal form

    • Phonological store (inner ear)

      • Holds speech based information


Working memory cont1

Working Memory Cont.

  • Viduospatial Sketchpad (inner eye)

    • Visual and spatial information


Evaluate working memory model

Evaluate Working Memory Model

  • Read: Crane, p.75

  • Using, Pickering and Gathercole (2001), describe the Working Memory Test, and evaluate the Working Memory Model.


Brain damage and long term memory

Brain Damage and Long Term Memory

  • Long term memory: 2 systems

    • Explicit Memory

      • Semantic (What—facts)

      • Episodic (When—events)

    • Implicit Memory

      • Procedural (How to do things)

      • Emotional (How)


Implicit vs explicit memory

Implicit vs. Explicit Memory

  • Explicit Memory: involves awareness of previous exposure, e.g. “I know that the word thread was on the list.”

  • Implicit Memory: influence of previous exposure of experience, without conscious recollection; “priming”

    • e.g., Word stem completion task

    • TH_ _ _


Clive wearing and hm

Clive Wearing and HM

  • Read, Crane p.78-79. 

  • Examining the case studies of Clive Wearing and HM, discuss the difference between Anterograde amnesia and Retrograde amnesia.  

  • Do you consider it ethical to study people who may not be able to provide their informed consent?  Would you consider case studies on individuals with these types of disorders to be ethical?  

  • How can case studies be helpful neuroscientists?  What do they offer that other methods of research leave out?  What are some limitations of case studies? 


Cognitive loa

Implicit vs. Explicit Memory:

Evidence

  • Becoming famous overnight(Jacoby et al., 1989)...

  • Part 1: pronounce 40 non-famous names (e.g., Sebastian Weisdorf)

  • Part 2: test either immediately or 24 hours later

    • moderately famous names and non-famous names (some old--e.g., Sebastian Weisdorf--and some new--e.g., Frank Chandler)

    • “Is this person famous?”


Cognitive loa

Implicit vs. Explicit Memory:

Evidence

  • Becoming famous overnight(Jacoby et al., 1989)...

  • Results:

    • Immediate test: Mistakes LESS common for old non-famous names (e.g., Sebastian Weisdorf) than new ones (e.g., Frank Chandler)

    • 24 hours later: Mistakes MORE common for old non-famous names (e.g., Sebastian Weisdorf) than new ones (Frank Chandler)


Cognitive loa

Semantic vs. Episodic Memory

  • Semantic Memory: Knowledge (e.g., water freezes at 0 degrees, the order of the planets, what “dissonance reduction” means, that your roommate is irresponsible)

  • Episodic Memory: Memory of a particular episode in your life; e.g., memory of the specific occasion on which you acquired a piece of knowledge

    • “I remember the day when I learned that water freezes at 0. I was sitting in at my desk in my third-grade classroom and Mrs. Hopkins was standing in front of the class, and she said...”

    • “I remember my first day at university. I arrived on campus at about 11 am. We were in my mom’s old car and all of my stuff was piled in the back...”


Memory recap

Memory Recap

  • Multi-store Model of Memory

  • Working Model of Memory

  • Long-term Memory System


Multi store model

Multi-store Model


Working memory model1

Working Memory Model


Long term memory system

Long-term memory system


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