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Digitally-Bypassed Transducers: Interfacing Digital Mockups to Real-Time Medical Equipment. Scott Sirowy*, Tony Givargis ‡ and Frank Vahid*‡. *Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of California, Riverside {ssirowy,vahid}@cs.ucr.edu. ‡Center for Embedded Computer Systems

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digitally bypassed transducers interfacing digital mockups to real time medical equipment

Digitally-Bypassed Transducers: Interfacing Digital Mockups to Real-Time Medical Equipment

Scott Sirowy*, Tony Givargis‡ and Frank Vahid*‡

*Department of Computer Science and Engineering

University of California, Riverside

{ssirowy,vahid}@cs.ucr.edu

‡Center for Embedded Computer Systems

University of California, Irvine

[email protected]

This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation

introduction medical device sw development
Introduction:Medical Device SW Development

Ventilator

  • PC Simulation
    • Simulate medical device and physiological system completely in software
    • Supports rapid software changes, faster than real-time execution, and avoids potential safety concerns

Matlab, MML, VisSim, etc

Lung

introduction medical device sw development1
Introduction:Medical Device SW Development
  • Physical Mockups
    • Later in development, migrate simulated physiological models to physical models
    • Used when medical device software is running on actual hardware
    • Potential inability to adapt to new features
introduction medical device sw development2

Ventilator

Matlab, MML, VisSim, etc

Lung

Introduction:Medical Device SW Development

Physical Mockups

PC Simulation

(Flexibility, speed, no real hardware)

(Real Hardware, more realistic, costly, some

scenarios difficult to model )

  • Digital Mockups
    • Combines the benefits of faster than real-time execution of simulation with advantages of developing software on real device
    • Potentially cheaper than physical mockups too
introduction medical device sw development3
Introduction:Medical Device SW Development
  • PC Simulation
    • Supports rapid software changes, faster than real-time execution, and avoids potential safety concerns
  • Physical Mockups
    • Used when medical device software is running on actual hardware
    • Potential inability to adapt to new features
  • Digital Mockups
    • Combines the benefits of faster than real-time execution of simulation with advantages of developing software on real device
    • Potentially cheaper than physical mockups too
introduction medical device sw development physical mockups

Ventilator

Physical Lungs Mockup

Introduction:Medical Device SW DevelopmentPhysical Mockups

Physical Tube

SW

Core

Pressure and Volume Sensors

Transducers

introduction medical device sw development digital mockups

Ventilator

Introduction:Medical Device SW DevelopmentDigital Mockups

Left Unconnected

Digital Lungs Mockup

SW

Core

Digital Interface

digital mockups digitally bypassed transducers
Digital MockupsDigitally-Bypassed Transducers

= Digitally-bypassed

Transducer

Medical Device

Digital Mockup

Input 1

Output 1

(Digital)

Sensed

Input

Input n

Output n

(Digital)

Sensed

Input

SW

Core

Physical Value

Input 1

Output 1

(Digital)

Physical Value

Input n

Output n

(Digital)

Control/Synchronization Channel

Digital Bypass

digital mockups digitally bypassed transducers1
Digital MockupsDigitally-Bypassed Transducers

Output Digitally-Bypassed Transducer

Input Digitally-Bypassed Transducer

Bypass Transducer

Digital output

(from medical

device)

Digital input

(to medical

device)

Digital

input

Sensed Value

Digital

output

Physical Value

Transducer

Transducer

  • Simple and inexpensive hardware additions enable bypassing the transducer inputs and outputs, and enable working completely in the digital domain
digital mockups medical device digital mockup synchronization
Digital MockupsMedical Device-Digital Mockup Synchronization
  • Rate Synchronization: Dedicated Control/Synchronization Channel used to exchange connectivity information, sampling rates, and mockup execution speeds

All communication done on the

bi-directional control/synchronization channel

Step 1: On initial connection,

digital connectivity handshake

Digital Mockup

Medical Device

Step 1

Step 2: Medical device sends

required sampling rate

Step 2

Step 3: Medical device and

Digital Mockup agree on

execution speed (real time, 2X

faster, etc)

Step 3

Step 4

Step 4: Begin Execution

medical software development with digitally bypassed transducers

Digital Lungs Mockup

Digital Lungs Mockup

SW

Core

SW

Core

SW

Core

Ventilator

Ventilator

Ventilator

Medical Software Development with Digitally-Bypassed Transducers
  • All Digitally-Bypassed
  • Transducers

Physical Interface

Tube

2) Combined Digital and

Transducers

  • Full Interaction with
  • Physical System
digitally bypassed transducers early prototype
Digitally-Bypassed TransducersEarly Prototype

Medical Device (Pacemaker)

Control/Synchronization Channel

Open leads for real physical

analog connections

Digital Mockup

of a Heart

Transducers

Digital Inputs/Outputs

medical software development prototype results
Medical Software DevelopmentPrototype Results
  • Heart Digital Mockup and Pacemaker
    • Implemented both pacemaker model and digital model using a number of off-the-shelf microcontrollers
    • Digital Mockup based off a simple physical heart model
    • Able to test pacemaker in real-time, and faster and slower than real time
medical software development prototype results1
Medical Software DevelopmentPrototype Results
  • Lung Digital Mockup and Ventilator
    • Lung Mockup Ventilator based off of models from the NSR Physiome Projects
    • Plan on augmenting a real ventilator with digitally-bypassed transducers in the near future
conclusions
Conclusions

With a small amount of hardware and software additions, we introduced the digitally-bypassed transducer

Digitally-bypassed transducers enable interfacing to digital mockups, enable medical software development at faster than real-time execution while still developing software on the real medical device

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