Building a nation 1840 1867
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BUILDING A NATION 1840-1867. THE FATHERS OF CONFEDERATION. AFTER THE REBELLIONS. English surpassed French Canada west outgrew Canada East. Toronto merged as a dominate city. The British became less interested in its colonies. Canada became responsible for $ and development.

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BUILDING A NATION 1840-1867

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Building a nation 1840 1867

BUILDING A NATION1840-1867

THE FATHERS OF CONFEDERATION


After the rebellions

AFTER THE REBELLIONS

  • English surpassed French

  • Canada west outgrew Canada East.

    • Toronto merged as a dominate city.

  • The British became less interested in its colonies.

    • Canada became responsible for $ and development.

  • The idea of a united Canada appeared.

    • Inter-colonial railway.

    • American threats

      • American Civil War

REBELLION LOSSES BILL

  • $ to compensate property damages.

  • First test of responsible government –> Law passed even though Elgin & wealthy disagreed. (burned parliament bldg./threw fruit)

  • Annexation Manifesto – Join the U.S.A


Immigration

IMMIGRATION

  • For The Wealthy – life was good.

    • education, few taxes, fancy houses, servants.

  • For The Poor – struggled to make a living.

    • 1-2 room cottages, poverty, poor wages, long hours, no EI, no health care,no gov’t assistance.

Social status was important

NOTE – The majority of immigrants came from Scotland & Ireland.


Victorian attitudes and values

VICTORIAN ATTITUDES AND VALUES

QUEEN VICTORIA

Reign 1837-1901

Dressed In Black - Mourning


New age of science and medicine

NEW AGE OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

DISEASES

Cholera

Smallpox

Typhoid Fever

Influenza

Tuberculosis

Killed Millions

MEDICAL

DISCOVERIES

Aspirin

Antibiotics

Antiseptics

X-rays

Vitamins

Hormones

Germs

Microscope

Vaccinations

Smallpox


Leisure and travel

LEISURE AND TRAVEL

Ceilidhs

Scottish Parties

Barn Raisings

Bear Baiting

BULL FIGHTING?????

Traveling Sideshows

Medicine Shows


Leisure and travel1

LEISURE AND TRAVEL

Railways

Sarah Bernhardt

Bare

Knuckle

Boxing

Steam Travel

Newspapers


Building a nation

BUILDING A NATION

Some politicians had been dreaming of

Confederation – the union of the colonies

of BNA into a federation.

“….the scheme as a whole has met with almost

universal approval.”

J.A. MacDonald, 1864

THE REALITY – Almost as many people opposed union as favoured it.


Building a nation 1840 1867

KEY TERMS

Coalition

Whip

Corruption

Representation by Population

‘Party Politics vs.

Private Members’


The house of commons

THE HOUSE OF COMMONS

9. MACE

10. HANSARD

11. SGT AT ARMS

12. THE BAR

13. INTERPRETERS

14. PRESS GALLERY

15. PUBLIC GALLERY

16. TV CAMERAS

  • SPEAKER

  • PAGES

  • GOV’T MEMBERS

  • OPPOSITION

  • PM

  • OPPOSITION LEADER

  • 2ND OPPOSITION LEADER

  • CLERK

ORDERS-IN-COUNCIL

Can make laws without parliament

(Emergencies / Senate apt.)

MACE

SYMBOL OF POWER

CABINET

(PM & his ‘best friends’


Party politics

PARTY POLITICS

CANADA EAST

CANADA WEST

Clear Grits – Brown

Anti- Corruption, Rep. by Pop.

more democracy, ‘GRUFF’

Pro English/Anti French

Parti Rouge – Papineau

Pro- French, farmer,

business, US style,

No Act of Union.

Tories – Macdonald

Middle Ground / Compromise

Less Democratic but willing to

work with French

Double Majority – Both Fr

Eng. Have to agree.

Parti Bleu – Cartier

Pro – Economy,

Fr. Rights,

not as radical

as Papineau


Building a nation 1840 1867

TOWARDS CONFEDERATION

FOUR CONCERNS FOR RESPONSIBLE GOV’T 1. New idea => How would it work?2. Fear it would weaken the British Empire.3. Economic Suicide=> Mercantilism was working.4. Strengthen British political enemies.

FOUR WAYS CONFEDERATION WOULD HELP THE ECONOMY.

1. Larger markets to sell to.

2. Increase industry.

3. Increase transportation.

4. Gov’t would serve Canada first & not Britain.


Building a nation 1840 1867

Responsible Government

For Elgin


Building a nation1

PROS

CONS

BUILDING A NATION

  • French/Aboriginal = loss of culture.

    • - language, Catholic church, assimilation.

  • Many preferred Brt. control.

    • safety and $$$.

    • Weaken Brt. Empire???

  • Maritimes felt no benefits.

    • RR to PEI????

    • Colonial & US trade already established.(??)

    • Soldiers to protect the west.

    • Rep. by Population ???

  • Idea of colonies governing was new => nobody knew how it would work.

  • Elgin’s Rebellion Losses Bill

    Left hard feelings => $ to Rebels???

  • Central gov’t control

    defence, currency, postage, taxation, foreign

    affairs, etc. (Independence gone???)

  • Economic stability.

    • Britain already repealed Corn Laws (exclusive trade privileges).”THE FAMILY DEAL”

    • US to end Reciprocity Treaty / Free Trade.

    • Steam, hurt ship building industry.

  • Intercontinental RR.

  • USA threats / Manifest Destiny

    • American Civil War(Brt helped South)

    • Fenian Raids

  • Stable responsible government. - Too many independents = crisis

    • Break “deadlock”/ Coalition gov’t.


The conferences

THE CONFERENCES

CHARLOTTETOWN CONFERENCE 1864

The Maritimes met to discuss union. Ended up agreeing to meet to discuss confederation.

QUEBEC CONFERENCE 1864

Here the delegates planned the birth of a new nation, Canada.The 72 Resolutions

laid the foundations

of the federation.


The bna act canada s constitution 1867

THE BNA ACTCANADA’S CONSTITUTION1867

CANADA’S FOUR PROVINCES

Ontario, Nova Scotia, Quebec, New Brunswick

GOVERNMENT

NATIONAL

UI, Postal, Census, “Indians”

Fisheries, Currency, Criminal Law, Trade and Commerce

PROVINCIAL

Prov. Tax, Forests, Prisons, Hospitals, Municipal, Saloon Licences, Courts


Powers of government

POWERS OF GOVERNMENT

CANADA’S THREE BRANCHES OF GOV’T

Executive Branch

Legislative Branch

Judicial Branch

MONTESQUIEU

BALANCE OF POWER – Power should be distributed over three branches so that no one person or branch can obtain absolute power.

G.G. David Johnson

CANADA

THREE LEVELS OF

GOVERNMENT

$ Spending

NOTE – The USA = a republic with powerful states.


A guide to government

A GUIDE TO GOVERNMENT

THREE LEVELS

OF GOVERNMENT

FEDERAL PROVINCIAL MUNICIPAL

THREE BRANCHES OF

GOVERNMENT

B.C.

CANADA

P.G.

P.G.

OTTAWA

VICTORIA

$PROVINCIAL & FEDERAL TAXES$

CORPORATE TAX

INCOME TAX

AD VALOREM TAX (HST)

EXCISE TAXES (ALCOHOL/GAS

PAYROLL TAX

$ MUNICIPAL $

Most $ comes from

Property Taxes


Building a nation 1840 1867

THREE PARTS OFGOVERNMENTBills must pass through all three parts of government in order to become laws in Canada.

HEAD OF STATE

DAVID JOHNSON

GOVERNOR

GENERAL

HOUSE OF

COMMONS

SENATE


The house of commons1

THE HOUSE OF COMMONS

9. MACE

10. HANSARD

11. SGT AT ARMS

12. THE BAR

13. INTERPRETERS

14. PRESS GALLERY

15. PUBLIC GALLERY

16. TV CAMERAS

  • SPEAKER

  • PAGES

  • GOV’T MEMBERS

  • OPPOSITION

  • PM

  • OPPOSITION LEADER

  • 2ND OPPOSITION LEADER

  • CLERK

ORDERS-IN-COUNCIL

Can make laws without parliament

(Emergencies / Senate apt.)

MACE

SYMBOL OF POWER

CABINET

(PM & his ‘best friends’


Macdonald to canada cartoon review

Macdonald to CanadaCartoon Review


Macdonald to canada cartoon review1

Macdonald to CanadaCartoon Review

Pros Cons

RR Taxes

Security Rep By Pop

Trade Maritimes

Stable Gov’t Culture

Fenians Independence

Lost

X

Dominion Of Canada

1867

Brt. Empire

Charlottetown Conference

Canada

1867

Canada

1965

Quebec Conference


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