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Ch. 16: Reconstruction. American History (CHA3U1). Introduction. Confederate war veterans returned to devastated land African Americans quickly learned that freedom didn’t mean equality

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ch 16 reconstruction

Ch. 16: Reconstruction

American History (CHA3U1)

introduction
Introduction
  • Confederate war veterans returned to devastated land
  • African Americans quickly learned that freedom didn’t mean equality
  • Readmitting Southern states to the Union difficult because of white Southern bitterness & Radical Republicans in Congress
sec 1 after slavery pgs 440 44
Sec. 1: After Slavery (pgs. 440 – 44)

New Ways of Life

  • The Plight of Landowners  some slaves agreed to stay and work the land for housing, food and cash after crops harvested

 Many lost land because Confederate money worthless therefore couldn’t pay taxes or debts

  • The Plight of Workers  poor whites / African Americans  tenant farmers / sharecroppers
sec 1 after slavery
Sec. 1: After Slavery
  • From Slavery to Freedom  strengthened family ties
  • Chose new surnames
  • Left for cities or farmland in the West
sec 1 after slavery1
Sec. 1: After Slavery

The Freedmen’s Bureau

  • Education  taught former slaves to read / write
  • Jobs  encouraged former slaves to sign labour contracts with planters
  • Land  land given to former slaves returned to previous white owners
sec 2 reconstructing the south pgs 445 51
Sec. 2: Reconstructing the South (pgs. 445 – 51)

Presidential Reconstruction

  • Lincoln’s Plan  amnesty / pardon to all Southerners who pledged an oath of loyalty to the United States

 African Americans could return to Africa or colonize Caribbean

  • The Radical Republicans’ Plan  harsher than

Lincoln’s plan  military rule

sec 2 reconstructing the south
Sec. 2: Reconstructing the South
  • Johnson’s Program  President after Lincoln assassinated tried to implement Lincoln’s generous plan but Radical Republicans refused to co-operate
  • White Men & Black Codes  states allowed to create their own laws that denied African Americans many basic rights such as voting or gov’t education
sec 2 reconstructing the south1
Sec. 2: Reconstructing the South

Presidential Reconstruction

  • The North Responds  April 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill giving citizenship to African Americans and all the rights entailed
  • The Fourteenth Amendment  defined citizenship to include African Americans who were guaranteed equal protection under the law
sec 2 reconstructing the south2
Sec. 2: Reconstructing the South

Radical Reconstruction

  • Reconstruction Plans  appreciative African Americans would vote for Radical Republicans
  • Reconstruction Legislation  March 1867 Reconstruction Act passed putting the South under five district military rule until the states gave African Americans the right to vote
sec 2 reconstructing the south3
Sec. 2: Reconstructing the South

Carpetbag Government

 Scalawags (Union sympathizers) and carpetbaggers (Northerners) despised

  • The Radicals in Power  reduce Pres. power
  • Challenging the Tenure Law  Pres. Johnson twice fired Edwin Stanton a supporter of Radicals
sec 2 reconstructing the south4
Sec. 2: Reconstructing the South

Carpetbag Government

  • Johnson Impeached  May 16, 1868 Senate voted 35 to 19 to convict Pres, one vote shy
  • The 1868 Election  General Grant won as a Radical Republican to become new President
sec 3 restoring southern power pgs 453 56
Sec. 3: Restoring Southern Power(pgs. 453 – 56)

Opponents of Reconstruction set up secret societies (e.g. KKK)  wore out Radicals

The Compromise of 1877

  • Electoral Commission  disputed Pres vote in 1876 given to Republican candidate Hayes
  • Reaching an Agreement  Democrats outraged so Republicans promised South power, funds and removal of federal troops
sec 3 restoring southern power
Sec. 3: Restoring Southern Power

After Reconstruction

  • Segregation  separation of races made legal by Supreme Court ruling Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional  Jim Crow laws follow
  • The “New South”  industrialization with Northern financing brought railroads, factories
  • Few Gains for African Americans  temporary gains soon gone with economic slavery
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Civil War devastated the South but in the long run the abolition of slavery helped the South to industrialize and diversify its economy
  • Unfortunately it would take another 100 years for African Americans to gain political and economic equality
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