4 1 1 biodiversity
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4.1.1 Biodiversity. Biodiversity. The amount of biological diversity per unit area. It includes: genetic, habitat and species diversity. Genetic Diversity. Is the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species. Habitat Diversity.

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4.1.1 Biodiversity

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4 1 1 biodiversity

4.1.1 Biodiversity


Biodiversity

Biodiversity

The amount of biological diversity per unit area.

It includes: genetic, habitat and species diversity


Genetic diversity

Genetic Diversity

Is the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species.


Habitat diversity

Habitat Diversity

Variety of forests, deserts, grasslands, lakes, oceans, coral reefs, wetlands, and other biological communities,

(niches per unit area).


Species diversity

Species Diversity

Is the number of species or organisms per unit areafound in different habitats of the planet.


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State of US species.


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Arctic Circle

Arctic Circle

60°

EUROPE

NORTH

AMERICA

ASIA

30°N

Tropic of Cancer

Atlantic

Ocean

AFRICA

Pacific

Ocean

Pacific

Ocean

150°

120°

90°

30°W

60°E

90°

150°

SOUTH

AMERICA

Indian

Ocean

Tropic of Capricorn

AUSTRALIA

30°S

Antarctic Circle

60°

ANTARCTICA

Critical and endangered

Threatened

Stable or intact

Projected Status of Biodiversity

1998–2018


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What are the relationships among ecosystem stability, diversity, succession and habitat ?


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  • How does diversity change during succession?

  • How does habitat diversity influence species diversity and genetic diversity?

  • How does ecosystem complexity, with its variety of nutrient and energy pathways, provide stability?

  • How do human activities (agriculture, mining, logging, etc.) modify succession?

  • What are the potential positive and negative results of human activities that simplify ecosystems? (monocrop agriculture)


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Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?

Instrumental value:

usefulness to us.

Intrinsic value:

because they exist,

Regardless of whether

they are useful to us or

not.


Goods

Foxglove

Pacific yew

Digitalis purpurea,

Europe

Digitalis for heart failure

Taxus brevifolia,

Pacific Northwest

Ovarian cancer

Goods

  • Food, fuel, ecosystems, species, fiber, lumber, paper, …

  • 90% of today’s food crops

  • 40% of all medicines (85% of antibiotics)


Ecological services

Ecological Services:

  • Flow of materials, energy, and information in the biosphere

    • Photosynthesis

    • Pollination

    • Soil formation and maintenance

    • Nutrient recycling

    • Moderation of weather extremes

    • Purification of air and water


Information

Information:

  • Genetic information: adaptation and evolution

  • Genetic information for genetic engineering

  • Educational and scientific information

Option:

  • People would be willing to pay in advance to preserve the option of directly using a resource such as a tree, an elephant, a forest or a clean lake.


Recreation

Recreation:

  • Hunting, fishing, swimming, scuba diving, water skiing, . . . .

  • Eco-tourism

  • Existence

  • Aesthetic

  • Protect natural capital for future generations

Nonutilitarian:


4 1 2 4 natural selection evolution of mammals

4.1.2-.4 Natural Selection Evolution of mammals


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http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educators/teachstuds/svideos.html


Darwin and evolution

Darwin and Evolution


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Evolution are the changes in the gene pool of a population over time.

Natural selection process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully.

Adaptation is an inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival.


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Darwin

Wolf

Pinta

Genovesa

Marchena

Santiago

Bartolomé

Seymour

Råbida

Baltra

Pin zon

Fernandia

Santa Cruz

Santa Fe

Tortuga

San Cristobal

Española

Floreana

EQUATOR

Galåpagos

Islands

Isabela


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Marine Iguana

Land Iguana


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KONA FINCH extinct

KAUAI AKIALAOA

AMAKIHI

LAYSAN FINCH

IIWI

AKIAPOLAAU

APAPANE

MAUI PARROTBILL

fruit and seed eaters

insect and nectar eaters

FOUNDER SPECIES


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Based on his observations, Darwin proposed that EVOLUTION occurs by NATURAL SELECTION.


Darwin s postulates

Darwin’s Postulates

  • Variation within populations.

  • Overproduction of offspring.

  • Struggle for existence.

  • Unequal survival and reproduction rates.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educators/teachstuds/svideos.html


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Population of organisms

Mutations & Sexual reproduction produces variations among offspring.

Overproduction of offspring

Limited resources leads to a struggle for survival between offspring.

Survivors reproduce more successfully.

Population changes over time.


Evolution of mammals

Evolution of Mammals


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DISPERSAL OF HIGHLY EVOLVED PLACENTAL MAMMALS

South America

Extinctions of many marsupials and early placental mammals

About 5 million years ago, during the Pliocene

Fig. 27.19d, p. 471


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Nonvertebrate chordates

Jawless fishes

Cartilaginous fishes

Bony fishes

Amphibians

Reptiles

Birds

Mammals


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Eurasia

North America

MONOTREMES, MARSUPIALS EVOLVE AND MIGRATE THROUGH PANGEA

South America

Africa

India

Australia

Antarctica

About 150 million years ago, during the Jurassic

Fig. 27.19a, p. 471


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MONOTREMES

Platypus

Spiny anteater


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MARSUPIALS

Koala

Tasmanian Devil


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PLACENTAL MAMMALS EVOLVE; ADAPTIVE RADIATIONS BEGIN

Isolation of the early monotremes, marsupials on this land mass

Between 100 and 85 million years ago, during the Cretaceous

Fig. 27.19b, p. 471


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PLACENTAL MAMMALS

Bat

Arctic Fox

Walruses

Manatee


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Beaver

Beaver

Muskrat

Beaver andMuskrat

Coypu

Capybara

Coypu andCapybara

NORTH AMERICA

Muskrat

Capybara

SOUTH AMERICA

Coypu


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ADAPTIVE RADIATIONS OF MORE EVOLVED PLACENTAL MAMMALS

North America

Eurasia

South America

Continued isolation of early monotremes and marsupials

Africa

Extinctions of mammals

Antarctica

About 20 million years ago, during the Miocene

Fig. 27.19c, p. 471


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SPECTACLED BEAR

SLOTH BEAR

SUN BEAR

BLACK BEAR

POLAR BEAR

BROWN BEAR

RACCOON

RED PANDA

GIANT PANDA

DIVERGENCE

15-20 million years ago

DIVERGENCE approximately

40 million years ago

Fig. 20.10, p. 319


What is a species

What is a Species?

A group of potentially or actually interbreeding populations, with a common gene pool, which are reproductively isolated from other groups


The problem with the species definition

The problem with the species definition

The species concept is a human construct used to make sense of the natural world. While extraordinarily helpful in understanding life, it fails to capture the full complex reality of continually evolving populations of organisms.


Sibling species

Sibling Species

Species that can’t interbreed, but have no significant differences in appearance.


Very different appearance that can interbreed

Very different appearance that can interbreed?!


Two tigons male to the left female to the right

Two tigons (male to the left, female to the right)


A liger lion tiger

A Liger-Lion/Tiger


A boblynx a hybrid of bobcat and lynx

A "boblynx" -- a hybrid of bobcat and lynx;


A zonkey a hybrid of zebra and donkey

A "zonkey" -- a hybrid of zebra and donkey;


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  • The "Toast of Botswana",  -- a hybrid of a female goat to a male sheep;A "cama" -- a hybrid of camel and llama;A "yakalo" - a hybrid of buffalo or bison and yak;A "cattalo" (or "beefalo") -- a cross of a bison with a domestic cattle;A "coywolf" -- a hybrid of coyote and wolf; A "wholphin" -- a hybrid of a bottlenose dolphin mother and a false killer whale father. Same situation like with the "pumapard" (parents belong to different genera).Some intraspecies hybrids (both genders fertile):A "wig" -- a cross of a wild and a domestic pig;An unnamed cross of a Siberian and a Manchurian tiger.


Tulips

tulips


4 2 2 4 causes of extinction

4.2.2-.4 Causes of Extinction


Extinct is forever

EXTINCT is FOREVER!!


Non human causes of extinction

Non-human causes of extinction:

  • Volcanic events

  • Ocean temperature change

  • Sea level changes

  • Meteorites

  • Glaciations

  • Global climate change

  • Competition/predation


Human causes of extinction loss of biodiversity hippo

Human causes of extinction/loss of biodiversity - HIPPO

  • Habitat destruction and fragmentation

  • Introduced species

  • Pollution

  • Population

  • Over consumption


Rates of extinction

Rates of Extinction:

= number of species becoming extinct per unit time.

  • Rates of extinction are very difficult to estimate, because we don't even know within an order of magnitude how many species there are.

  • Fossil records can reveal the average "lifetimes" of species, or how long different classes of plants and animals generally exist on the earth before going extinct.


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  • From this information, scientists can determine a "background" rate of extinction, or the natural rate of extinction without human intervention.

  • Because of human intervention the Earth's species are dying out at an alarming rate, up to 1,000 times faster than their natural rate of extinction.


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  • By carefully examining fossil records and ecosystem destruction, some scientists estimate that as many as 137 species disappear from the Earth EACH DAY, which adds up to an astounding 50,000 species disappearing every year.


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The Earth has experienced 5 MASS EXTINCTIONS


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  • Mammals average species lifespan 1 million years.

  • With ~ 5,000 mammalian species the background extinction rate = 1 every 200 years.

  • In the past 400 years, though, 89 extinctions have been recorded, almost 45 times the natural rate.

  • Over 50 of those extinctions have occurred in the past century,

  • Rate = 100 times the background rate!!


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Extinction Rates over geological time


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Middle Cambrian age (about 540 million years ago)

  • The locality is special because of the soft-bodied preservation of a wide diversity of fossil invertebrate animals.

  • Period of great speciation.


Characteristics of vulnerable species

Characteristics of vulnerable species

  • Small population size - island species.

  • Small population size - species with limited habitats.

  • Extremely specialized species.

  • Species with low reproductive potential.

  • Species that require large territories.

  • Species with limited dispersal ability.


Vulnerable species continued

Vulnerable species - continued

  • Migratory species.

  • Species that are economically valuable or hunted for sport

  • Predators.

  • Species that are vulnerable to pollution.

  • Species that are incompatible with civilization.


Rainforest

Rainforest

  • Tropical rainforests contain at least half of the Earth's species.

  • Most species have evolved to inhabit very specialized niches in their environment.

  • When humans disrupt that environment, many species cannot survive.

  • Because species depend on each other in a complicated web of relationships, changing just one part of that web harms the entire ecosystem.

  • This breakdown of rainforest ecosystems will likely lead to the disappearance of up to 10% of the world's species within the next 25 years.


Rainforest continued

Rainforest continued

  • The human species depends on the rainforest's millions of life forms for its own existence -

  • The genetic diversity found within the rainforests provides invaluable additions to the gene pool which help maintain and improve domestic crops.

  • Without a diversity of strains, crops become overly homogenous and vulnerable to mass blight.

  • Many medicines that we regularly use come from rainforest species.


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