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Chinese-English Bilingual Teaching For Logistics & Supply Chain Management. Chapter 7. Stock Control 姜 阵 剑 [email protected] Ch.7 Stock Control. Stock Classification 库存的分类 Stock Identification 库存辨认 Forecast 库存预测.

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Chinese english bilingual teaching for logistics supply chain management
Chinese-English Bilingual Teaching ForLogistics & Supply Chain Management

Chapter 7. Stock Control

姜 阵 剑

[email protected]

Business School, SDJU


Ch 7 stock control
Ch.7 Stock Control

  • Stock Classification 库存的分类

  • Stock Identification 库存辨认

  • Forecast 库存预测

Business School, SDJU


Business School, SDJU


Business School, SDJU


1 stock classification
1. assessment of the following factors.Stock classification

  • 80/20 in such cases 80% of the items in stock typically make up only 20% of the total stock value, while the remaining 20% of (high-value) items account for 80% of the total stock value.

  • 这一法则是由意大利经济学家帕累托在十九世纪末期提出的,应该说这一法则具有普遍的适用性。

Business School, SDJU


1 stock classification1
1. assessment of the following factors.Stock classification

  • ABC groups

    • Category A items – 10% of items by volume account for 70% of value;

    • Category B items – 20% of volume accounts for 20% of value;

    • Category C items – 70% of volume accounts for 10% by values.

Business School, SDJU


1 stock classification2
1. assessment of the following factors.Stock classification

  • The stock control policy for the categories might be as follows:

    • Class A – close control and checked once a month;

    • Class B – medium control and checked every three months;

    • Class C – minimum control with free issue

Business School, SDJU


2 stock identification
2. Stock identification assessment of the following factors.

  • Stock consists of many different types of individual items.

  • The easiest way to identify an item is by name or word description.

  • The problem is that different people may describe the same item using different words.

  • This can result in duplication of the same item with consequent higher than necessary stockholding levels

Business School, SDJU


2 stock identification1
2. Stock identification assessment of the following factors.

  • The development of a coding system follows a series of stages.

    • Identification of each item by function and need.

    • Specification of each item.

    • Classification into groups and sub-groups.

    • Application of code.

Business School, SDJU


2 stock identification2
2. Stock identification assessment of the following factors.

  • Classification into groups and sub-groups could be made on any of the following bases.

    • Nature of material

    • End use of material

    • Location on stores

    • Source of supply

    • End user customer

Business School, SDJU


2 stock identification3
2. Stock identification assessment of the following factors.

  • 所谓零件分类编码系统

  • 目前,世界上大约有100多种零件分类编码系统。

  • OPITZ系统(德)、MNTPOФAHOB(前苏联)、BRISCH系统(英)、KK-3系统(日)、CODE系统(美)、MICLASS系统(荷)等。

  • OPITZ系统

Business School, SDJU


2 stock identification4
2. Stock identification assessment of the following factors.

  • In theBrischsystem there are 2 parts to the code. The ‘surname’ comes first and provides the broad item classification.

    • Surname :

      • 1st figure = main classification 主族分类

      • 2nd figure = sub-group 子组 of main classification

      • 3rd figure = item classification 项目分类

Business School, SDJU


2 stock identification5
2. Stock identification assessment of the following factors.

  • The ‘forename’ which follows describes each item in detail e.g.

    • Forename:

      • 4th figure = length

      • 5th figure = diameter

      • 6th figure = type of head

      • 7th figure =surface finish

Business School, SDJU


2 stock identification6
2. Stock identification assessment of the following factors.

  • So 100- 5648 could mean:

    • 1 = bought out parts, 0 = fasteners and fixings扣件和装备, 0 = nuts and bolts 螺母螺栓

    • 5 = 2cm, 6 = 10mm, 4 = hex RD hex (六角,radial direction 径向), 8 = zinc coated

Business School, SDJU


2 stock identification7
2. Stock identification assessment of the following factors.

  • The coding details of all stock items are normally maintained in a list or catalogue called the stores vocabulary.

  • This facilitates stock rationalization, whereby stock codes can be analyzed and any duplicate stock can be easily highlighted.

  • As well as codifying items into unique part numbers, inventory can also be broken down into generic constituent areas.

Business School, SDJU


2 stock identification8
2. Stock identification assessment of the following factors.

  • Categorization of stock may also be used for accounting or analytical reasons.

    • Maintenance stock

    • Project stock

    • Insurance stock

    • Strategic stock

Business School, SDJU


3 forecast
3. assessment of the following factors.Forecast

  • An effective stock control system involves decisions on:

    • how much stock to hold using forecasts of usage and replenishment;

    • how much to order——order quantity;

    • when to order for stock——timing of orders.

Business School, SDJU


3 forecast1
3. assessment of the following factors.Forecast

  • Each item stocked, decisions on how much should be held are made on the basis of demand forecasting.

  • Forecast comparisons use sales data and production data from the bill of materials.

  • 它是MRP的重要文件,几乎所有的管理部门都要到它。它能详细表列出装配结构中的零件状态及装配组件或零件中包含的参数。

Business School, SDJU


3 forecast 1 eoq
3. assessment of the following factors.Forecast --- (1) EOQ

  • 经济订货批量 EOQ =

    • annual usage (商品年需求量/使用量)

    • acquisition cost per order (每次订货成本)

    • stockholding cost per unit (单位商品年保管费/库存费/单位库存维持成本)

Business School, SDJU


3 forecast 1 eoq1
3. assessment of the following factors.Forecast 库存预测--- (1) EOQ

  • EOQ example

  • 经济订货批量EOQ =

  • So order quantity is 37.

= 37 units

Business School, SDJU


3 forecast 2 safety stock
3. assessment of the following factors.Forecast ---(2)safety stock

  • This is the ‘lead-time’(提前期) which includes things like:

    • time to identify then authorize replenishment

    • time to establish supplier contact and complete paperwork

    • time for the supplier to obtain or produce the goods

    • time to have the goods delivered

    • time for goods inwards/receiving and quality checking time.

Business School, SDJU


3 forecast 2 safety stock1
3. assessment of the following factors.Forecast ---(2)safety stock

  • Safety stock (or buffer stock)

    • A fixed quantity

    • A given day’s worth

    • A quantity calculated statistically based on usage and supply factors

Business School, SDJU


3 forecast 3 rol
3. assessment of the following factors.Forecast ---(3)ROL

  • Re-order levels are used to trigger consideration of stock reordering action.

  • It is a stock level at which new stock must be ordered if replenishment is to arrive before a stockout occurs, provided demand remains as predicted.

Business School, SDJU


Understanding inventory
Understanding Inventory assessment of the following factors.

  • The inventory policy is affected by:

    • Demand Characteristics

    • Lead Time

    • Number of Products

    • Objectives

      • Promote service level

      • Minimize costs

    • Cost Structure

Business School, SDJU


Cost structure
Cost Structure assessment of the following factors.

  • Order costs (acquisition/administration costs )

    • Fixed

    • Variable

  • Holding Costs (stockholding costs )

    • Insurance

    • Maintenance and Handling

    • Taxes

    • Opportunity Costs

    • Obsolescence

Business School, SDJU


Eoq a view of inventory

Inventory assessment of the following factors.

Order

Size

Avg. Inven

Time

EOQ: A View of Inventory*

Note:

• No Stockouts

• Order when no inventory

• Order Size determines policy

Business School, SDJU


Eoq calculating total cost
EOQ: Calculating Total Cost* assessment of the following factors.

  • Purchase Cost Constant

  • Holding Cost: (Avg. Inven) * (Holding Cost)

  • Ordering (Setup Cost):Number of Orders * Order Cost

  • Goal: Find the Order Quantity that Minimizes These Costs

Business School, SDJU


Eoq total cost

Total Cost assessment of the following factors.

Holding Cost

Order Cost

EOQ

EOQ:Total Cost*

Business School, SDJU


Eoq optimal order quantity
EOQ: Optimal Order Quantity* assessment of the following factors.

  • Optimal Quantity = (2*Demand*Setup Cost)/holding cost

  • Setup Cost 采购/(生产)准备成本

Business School, SDJU


经济订货批量( assessment of the following factors.EOQ)模型

  • 经济定货批量(Economic Order Quantity,EOQ)的假设条件。

  • 需求已知且常量;

  • 一次订货量无限制;

  • 采购、运输无价格折扣;

  • 订货提前期已知且常量; ...

  • 经济订货批量(EOQ)模型的目标

  • 经济订货量是一种决策模型,在一系列假设的基础上计算订货的最优数量。经济订货批量平衡了订购和持有存货的变动成本。

Business School, SDJU


EQQ assessment of the following factors.(定量订货法 Stationary)

  • 经济采购/订货量(Economic order quantity,EQQ)定义:使采购成本及存货持有成本加总值最小的采购量。适用于需求及成本都很稳定的情况。

  • 模型假设:

  • 每次订货的订货量相同,

  • 订货提前期固定,

  • 需求率固定不变。

Business School, SDJU


经济订货批量计算公式如下: assessment of the following factors.2DS

Q*=

Ci

式中:Q*——经济订货批量

D——商品年需求量

S——每次订货成本

Ci——单位商品年保管费

EQQ(定量订货法 Stationary)

实际演练

Business School, SDJU


2×16000×40 assessment of the following factors.

2

EQQ(定量订货法 Stationary)

例:某仓库某种商品年需求量为16000箱,单位商品年保管费2元,每次订货成本为40元,求经济订货批量Q*。

Q*=

=800箱

Business School, SDJU


Q & A ! assessment of the following factors.


Exercises
Exercises assessment of the following factors.

教材 P94

Business School, SDJU


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