Vacuum pumps
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Vacuum Pumps. Basics. vac·u·um noun 1. a space entirely devoid of matter.

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Vacuum Pumps

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Vacuum pumps

Vacuum Pumps


Basics

Basics

  • vac·u·um

    • noun 1. a space entirely devoid of matter.

    • 2. an enclosed space from which matter, especially air, has been partially removed so that the matter or gas remaining in the space exerts less pressure than the atmosphere ( opposed to plenum). (dictionary.com)

  • Exhaust pressure= atm generally

  • Base pressure = pressure pump gets down to

  • Compression ratio = exhaust/base= big number

  • Boyles Law P1V1=P2V2


History of vacuum pumps

History of vacuum pumps

  • Suction pumps go way back (Romans, Byzantine empire, etc)

  • Major improvements on the idea of vacuum made by Galileo, Evangeilist Torricelli, and Blaise Pascal

  • Otto von Guericke made first pump and famous for Magdeburg hemispheres experiment


Types of vacuum pumps

Types of Vacuum pumps

  • Positive displacement pumps

    • Expand a cavity, seal, exhaust, repeat

  • Momentum transfer pumps (molecular pumps)

    • High speed liquids or blades to knock gasses around

  • Entrapment

    • Create solids or adsorbed gases (cryopumps)


Roughing pumps

Roughing pumps

  • Pumps from atm pressure down to rough vacuum (0.1 Pa, 1X10-3torr)

  • Necessary because turbo pumps have trouble starting from atmospheric pressure

  • Usually Rotary Vane pumps

  • Can have oil or not


Rotary vane pumps

Rotary vane pumps

Oil Sealed Rotary Pumps Understanding Gas Ballastwww2.avs.org/chapters/nccavs/pdf/Gas_Ballast_OilSealedPumps.pdf


Rotary vane pumps1

Rotary vane pumps

Condensation of vapor in the gas mixture is a problem with these pumps. Solution Ballasting

Works by increasing the gas/vapor ratio (air is mostly gas)

As you might imagine this interferes with the final vacuum


Types

Types

  • One stage or two stage

  • Belt Drive or direct drive

Slower 400-600 RPM

Bigger, Cheaper

Faster 1500 to 1725 RPM

Smaller, lighter


Turbo molecular pumps

Turbo (molecular) pumps

  • Gas molecules interact with spinning blades and are preferentially forced downward

  • High vacuum (10-6 Pa) requires rotation of 20,000 to 90,000 revolutions per minute

  • Generally work between 10-3 and 10-7 Torr

  • Ineffective before gas is in “molecular flow”


Turbo molecular pumps1

Turbo (molecular) pumps

  • Options:

    • Bearings: Ceramic (oil lubricated) Magnetic (supported w/out physical contact), also hybrid

    • Rotor options (Blade configuration)

    • Cooling (air or water)


Pump care

Pump Care

  • Rough pumps shouldn’t need a lot of maintenance

    • If they do repair kits are available:

    • Minor kit includes all necessary seals (shaft seals, valves, o-rings, etc)

    • Major kit includes Minor Kit components plus vanes, springs, plugs, etc.

    • Seem to be available for most major brands and types

  • Turbopumps should need even less maintenance, bearings can wear out but must be replaced by manufacturer for balancing.

http://www.sisweb.com/vacuum/sis/iseries-maintkit.htm


Pump specs

Pump specs

Spec sheet for an

Edwards A65209903

RV rotary vane pump

$3171


Vacuum pumps

Subset of specs for Edwards EXT 556H turbomolecular pump


Vacuum pumps

Rotary Vane:

Pump speed lower at low vacuum

Turbo pumps: opposite

Pump Speed

Pressure


Useful fitting terminology

Useful fitting terminology

  • Flanges

    • Standard quick Release (QF, KF, NW, or DN)

      • Named based on internal diameter DN16KF is 16mm (16-50mm)

    • Large Quick releases (LF, LFB, MF or ISO)

      • Clamps or bolts (63-500mm)

    • Conflat (CF) used in ultra high vacuum settings, usually metal to metal seals

      • Sizing odd: Europe inner diamter in mm, NA outer diameter in inches


Vacuum pumps

Sizes we will likely find.

www.vacuumresearchcorp.com/pdfs/valves/nwflanges06.pdf


Pumps on the delta s

Pumps on the Delta S

  • Pumping system for Analyzer

    • Turbo molecular pump TPH 050

    • Vacuum pump E2 M1, 52

  • Differential Pumping system

    • Turbo molecular pump TPH 050

    • Turbo molecular pump TPH 240

    • Vorvakuumpumpe E2 M5, 50160 Hz


Vacuum pumps

Turbo molecular pump TPH 050

Turbo molecular pump TPH 240


Units of pressure for your notes

Units of pressure for your notes


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