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AP BIO Review. http://www.angelfire.com/ga/sweetgeorgiapeach1/grandmom.html. Name the essential element that becomes part of the chlorophyll molecule. ?. Mg-Magnesium. What role do nitrogen fixing bacteria play in the nitrogen cycle?. Convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia (NH 3 ).

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AP BIO Review

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Ap bio review

AP BIO Review

http://www.angelfire.com/ga/sweetgeorgiapeach1/grandmom.html


Ap bio review

Name the

essential element

that becomespart of the

chlorophyll molecule

?

Mg-Magnesium

What role do nitrogen fixing

bacteria play in the nitrogen

cycle?

Convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia (NH3)


Ap bio review

Name the 4 groups of plants you learned about

Bryophytes (mosses, hornworts, liverworts)

Seedless Vascular plants (ferns)

Gynmosperms (naked seed)

Angiosperms (flowering plants)

The idea that no two species can share the sameniche is called the ________________________

Competitive Exclusion Principle

Nephridia, flame cells, and Malphighian tubules

function in which body system?

excretory


Ap bio review

Name the plant hormone that results in the

Triple Response when growing plants encounter

an obstacle

ethylene

The involuntary muscles that cause wave likecontractions to push food through the digestivesystem are _________ muscles.

cardiac striated smooth

smooth


Ap bio review

American Bald eagles became endangered whenthe pesticide DDT concentrated in their bodies causing them to lay eggs with low calcium levels.

This concentration of a toxin in greater amountsat upper levels as it moves through a food chainis called ___________________

Biological magnification

XYLEM

In vascular plants, the ___________ conveyswater and dissolved minerals upward from roots to shoots.

phloem xylem


Ap bio review

Write the 2 equations need to solveHardy-Weinberg equilibrium problems

p2 + 2pq +q2 = 1

p + q = 1

If 9% of an African population is born with a severe form of

sickle-cell anemia (ss), what percentage of the population will

be more resistant to malaria because they are heterozygous?

9% =.09 = ss = q2

q = Square root of .09 = .3

p = 1 - .3 = .7

2pq = 2 (.7 x .3) = .42

42% of the population are heterozyotes (carriers)


Ap bio review

Companion

___________ cells help load sugarsinto sieve-tube members.

Name the animal phylum that includes theONLY INVERTEBRATE DEUTEROTOMES.

Echinodermata (Echnioderms)

Which of the following bonding combinations is always found in a DNA molecule?

Purine-purine Pyrimidine-pyrimidine Purine-pyrimidine


Ap bio review

translation

Protein synthesis is also called ___________

Epistasis

_________ is when a gene at one locusalters the phenotypic expression of a geneat another locus.

Name a genetic disorder you learned aboutcaused by nondisjunction

Turner syndromeDown syndromeKlinefelter syndrome

Triple X syndrome


Ap bio review

Name the conditions that must be met fora population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

Name the macromolecule formed by dehydrationsynthesis of amino acid monomers

No mutationNo natural selection

No movement in or out

Random mating

Large population

protein


Ap bio review

Tell the number of chromosomes in a

human egg cell.

23

2

1

Fish have a ___ chambered heart and a___ loop circulatory system.

(Add a number to each blank)

Which type of muscle tissue is multinucleated?

Striated smooth cardiac


Ap bio review

Describe several characteristics of mitochondia and chloroplasts that support the Endosymbiotic theory

  • Contain DNA that is different from that of the cell nucleus and that is similar to that of bacteria (in being circular and in its size).

  • Surrounded by two or more membranes, and the innermost membrane shows composition like that of a prokaryotic cell membrane.

  • Form only through a process similar to binary fission.

  • Much of the internal structure and biochemistry of plastids, for instance the presence of thylakoids and particular chlorophylls, is very similar to that of cyanobacteria.

  • Organelle ribosomes are like those found in bacteria (70s).

  • Organelle proteins, like those of bacteria, use N-formylmethionine as the initiating amino acid


Ap bio review

Producers (autotrophs)

_________________ are found in the FIRSTTROPHIC level of all food chains

Name the plant polysaccharide made with α-glucose monomers joined with 1-4 linkages

Starch

(amylose &amylopectin)

http://www.sciencecollege.co.uk/SC/biochemicals/starch.jpg


Ap bio review

Name some types of passive transport you learned about

Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, ion channels,osmosis, aquaporins,

Name the polysaccharide made with β-glucose

monomers joined with 1-4 linkages

Cellulose

http://www.fibersource.com/f-tutor/Images/Cell.GIF


Ap bio review

Name the following functional groups

Carbonyl(aldehyde)

Carbonyl(ketone)

sulfhydryl

Hydroxyl

carboxyl

amino

phosphate


Ap bio review

Name this subunit

Amino acid

Joining these together will make which

macromolecule?

protein

Name the organelle which modifies and packagesmolecules for transport.

Golgi apparatus


Ap bio review

Match the coelom with the correct worm Phylum

Pseudocoelom

Nematoda

(round worms)

Eucoelom

Annelida(segmented worms)

ACOELOM

Playtehelminthes

(flatworms)

http://web.nkc.kku.ac.th/images/lean/1-1.jpg


Ap bio review

Lichens are the result of a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and algae. The fungal partner benefits by getting sugars, produced by the algae during photosythesis.The algal partner gets protection against the weather as the fungi normally forms the outer surface.

This is an example of ____________

mutualism

Birds and mammals have a ___ chambered heart and a ___ loop circulatory system.

(Add a number to each blank)

4

2


Ap bio review

Why does spermatogenesis produce 4 haploidcells, but oogenesis produces only one?

Concentrates all nutrients and cell components into “one good egg” for the greatest chance ofsuccess for the new zygote

Amphibians and most reptiles have a ___ chambered heart and a ___ loop circulatory system.

(Add a number to each blank)

3

2


Ap bio review

Give an example of an amniote

Reptiles, birds, mammals

Amniote embryos, whether laid as eggs or carried by the female, are protected and aided by several extensive membranes. In humans, these membranes include the amniotic sac that surrounds the fetus.

Organisms that thrive in very hot environmentsare called ____________ and would be placedin the Domain ______________

thermophiles

ARCHAEA


Ap bio review

Autosomal recessive genetic disorder causedby a single substitution in the genetic code for hemoglobin which causes a change in the

shape of red blood cells in low oxygen conditions

Sickle cell anemia

Persons who are heterozygous for the above

disorder have increased resistance to thisdisease caused by a parasitic protozoan.

malaria


Ap bio review

Organisms are placed into DOMAINS basedon which characteristic?

Ribosomal RNA

α-helix and β-pleated sheet are examples of

___________ structures of proteins.

primary secondary tertiary quaternary

secondary

Add your ? here

Add your ? here


Ap bio review

Name the protein molecule that assists inthe folding of other proteins

chaparonin

Image from: AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece

Tell the place where H+ ions build up as electrons pass down the electron transport chain in mitochondria during cellular respiration

Intermembrane space


Ap bio review

Hemoglobin molecule is composed of twoα and two β protein chains. This is an example of ____________ protein structure.

primary secondary tertiary quaternary

quaternary

Tell where this moleculemight be found and give

its function

Found in red blood cells

Carries oxygen

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/hemoglobin.jpg


Ap bio review

COMPARE THE FOLLOWING:

Glucose

SUNLIGHT

Intermembranespace

Thylakoid space

Oxygen

NADPH

Thylakoid

membrane

Cristae

In plants andanimals

Only in plants


Ap bio review

Name the three kinds of nitrogen waste

excreted by animals

Ammonia, urea, uric acid

Which of these is excreted by most aquaticorganisms?

ammonia

Which of these is excreted by reptiles & birds?

Uric acid


Ap bio review

Name the protein hormone that causes

liver and muscle cells to store glucose as glycogen

insulin

beta

This hormone is produced by the _____ cells found in the islets of _____________

in the ______________

Langerhans

pancreas

Name the disorder caused by a deficiency ofthis hormone or a decreased response in targettissues.

Diabetes mellitus


Ap bio review

Tell whether the following carry highly oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?

right atrium

left atrium

right ventricle

left ventricle

pulmonary artery

pulmonary vein

deoxygenated

Highly oxygenated

deoxygenated

Highly oxygenated

deoxygenated

highly oxygenated


Ap bio review

During replication which strand is synthesizedin pieces?

Lagging strand

Name these pieces

Okazai fragments

Which enzyme joins the fragments together ?

DNA ligase


Ap bio review

This cell is in a(n) ______ tonic solution

hypo

What will happen to this animal cell?

It will shrink It will swell and burst It will same the same size

It will swell and burst

This process is called________________

cytolysis


Ap bio review

Which of the following would probably bea response(s) to a drop in body temperature?

Vasodilation of capillaries in skin

Constriction of capillaries in skin

Erection of hairs/fur on skin

Increased sweating

Nonshivering thermogenesis

Shivering


Ap bio review

COMPARE THE FOLLOWING:

Mouth

Anus

Determinate

spiral

Indeterminateradial

All triploblastic

invertebrates

except echinoderms

Vertebrates plus echinoderms


Ap bio review

Tell the body part responsible for the following:

Thermoregulation

Chyme is mixed with pancreatic enzymes

Produces bile

Stores bile

Monitors CO2 concentration in blood

hypothalmus

Duodenum (small intestine)

liver

Gall bladder

Medulla oblongata


Ap bio review

Tell the body part responsible for the following:

Contains alveoli

Processes toxins

Activates pepsinogen

oogenesis

pulmonary artery

pulmonary vein

lungs

liver

stomach

ovary

deoxygenated

highly oxygenated


Ap bio review

This cell is in a(n) ______ tonic solution

iso

What will happen to this cell?

It will shrink It will swell and burst It will same the same size

Stay the same size


Ap bio review

Activation of pepsinogen is an example of______________ feedback because once some

pepsinogen molecules are activated by acid in the

stomach to pepsin, activation occurs at an

increasingly rapid rate because pepsin can

activate additional molecules of pepsinogen.

POSITIVE

Arterioles

_________ connect arteries and capillaries


Ap bio review

This part is a muscle cell releases Ca++ when the

cell receives the stimulus to contract.

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Name the neurotransmitter released into the

synaptic cleft when a nerve signal is transmitted

acetylcholine

The rise in levels of which ion through voltage gated channels causes the fusion of vesicles and

the release of the neurotransmitter above.

Ca++


Ap bio review

Describe some of the post transcriptional modifications

on eukaryotic DNA prior to leaving the nucleus

Removal of introns/joining of exons

Poly A tail added

5’ guanine cap added

UBIQUITIN

____________ is a molecular tag added toproteins that marks them for degradationby proteosomes


Ap bio review

Name the complex that recognizes slice sites, removesintrons, and combines exons during mRNA processing ?

spliceosomes

RNA molecules that function as enzymesare called ___________

ribozymes

During replication, which strand is synthesizedcontinuously?

Leading strand


Ap bio review

Name the enzyme whose function is to:

Attaches the correct amino

acid to a tRNA

Starts a DNA strand by putting in a short stretch of RNA

Adds protective ends onto DNA to prevent loss of the message when its copied

Amino acyl

t-RNA synthase

primase

telomerase


Ap bio review

DNA replication can be described as

____________________

Dispersive conservative semi-conservative

Semi-conservative

Name 3 ways bacterial DNA can be changedin nature.

Transformationconjugation (bacterial sex)

transduction


Ap bio review

Bacterial “sex” is also called

___________________

conjugation

Small circular self replicating DNA separatefrom the bacterial chromosome that often carry genes for antibiotic resistance are

called ____________

plasmids

Name the molecule in the cell walls of most

Prokaryotes but missing in archaeans.

peptidoglycan


Ap bio review

Tell some differences between the following:

MONOCOTSEUDICOTS

One cotyledon Two cotyledons

Veins parallel Veins netlike

Vascular tissue scattered Vascular tissue in ring

Fibrous roots Taproot (main root)

Pollen grain w/1 opening Pollen grain w/3 openings

Flower parts in Flower parts in multiples

multiples of 3 multiples of 4 or 5


Ap bio review

Which of the following is found in all triploblastic

animals other than worms?

Eucoelom OR true coelom

http://web.nkc.kku.ac.th/images/lean/1-1.jpg


Ap bio review

This cell is in a(n) ______ tonic solution

hyper

What will happen to this cell?

It will shrink It will swell and burst It will same the same size

It will shrink

In an animal cell, this process is called________________

crenation


Ap bio review

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