Common travel diseases
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 15

Common travel diseases PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 37 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Common travel diseases. Minus malaria and dengue. Guess that disease!. Patient presents with abdominal pain and a fever. Patient is a sheep farmer. O/E – hepatomegaly , jaundice. Remembering Murphy’s punch test wrong, you decide to punch the liver. Why is this a horrendous idea?.

Download Presentation

Common travel diseases

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Common travel diseases

Common travel diseases

Minus malaria and dengue


Common travel diseases

Guess that disease!


Common travel diseases

  • Patient presents with abdominal pain and a fever.

  • Patient is a sheep farmer.

  • O/E – hepatomegaly, jaundice.

  • Remembering Murphy’s punch test wrong, you decide to punch the liver.

  • Why is this a horrendous idea?


Common travel diseases

  • Patient complains of fever. .

  • As well as these little things.

  • Diarrhoea – blood, mucus.

  • Urination is now painful and is a strange colour.

  • Recently been swimming in malawi.

  • Diagnosis – eggs in urine or faeces

  • Mangement – praziquantel, molluscides


Common travel diseases

  • Patient comes in with an ulcer on his foot.

  • What else may they have?

  • Splenomegaly, pancytopenia. Why?


Common travel diseases

  • Epidemiology

    • Affects 3-5 million per year, 100,000-130,000 deaths, mainly developing world

  • Symptoms

    • Asymptomatic, severe diarrhoea with rice water stools (watery flecks of mucus), no blood, vomiting, abdominal cramping

  • Pathogenesis

    • Attaches and colonises small intestine – releases a toxin which leads to increased chloride secretion and decreased sodium absorption

  • Prevention

    • Antibiotic prophylaxis, vaccine (only some strains)

  • Treatment

    • Fluid management, antimicrobidal therapy, zinc supplemenation

  • Disease

    • Cholera


  • Common travel diseases

    • Epidemiology

      • Africa, South America, Asia

      • 16-33 mill per year, 216,000 deaths

    • Symptoms

      • Encephalitic – hydrophobia, aerophobia, pharyndeal spasms, hyperactivity

      • Paralytic – quadriparesis, sphincter involvement, cerebral involvement late

      • Non-classical – neuropathic pain, motor/sensory deficits, choreiform movements, cranial nerve palsies etc..

    • Pathogenesis

      • Virus deposited in wound, travels form the periphery to the dorsal root ganglia then to the brain.

      • Prefentially localise in the brain stem, thalamus, basal ganglia, spinal cord, then from neural pathways to other organs

  • Prevention

    • Don’t get bitten, pre-exposure prohphylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis

  • Treatment

    • With one exception, no patient who has been exposed and has not been vaccinated has survived.

    • Incubation period ranges several days to a year

  • Disease

    • Rabies


  • Common travel diseases

    • Epidemiology

      • Equatorial Africa, northern parts of South America

    • Symptoms

      • Subclinical

      • Abortive, nonspecific febrile illness without jaundice

      • Fever, jaundice, renal failure, hemorrhage

    • Pathogenesis

      • Single stranded RNA virus, transferred via mosquito.

      • Replication begins at site of innoculation spreads through lymphatics – monocytes, macrophages preferred.

      • Liver – Councilman bodies, apoptosis – midzone of liver

      • Renal – eosinophilic degeneration, fatty change of renal tubular epithelium without inflammation

      • Late phase – circulatory shock – cytokine dysregulation

      • Symptoms 3-6 days after bite

  • Prevention

    • Vaccination (not < 9 months), don’t get bitten

  • Treatment

    • No specific anti-viral. Symptomatic treatment.

  • Disease

    • Yellow fever


  • Common travel diseases

    • Epidemiology

      • Mexico, Nepal, Indian, Pakistan, South-East Asia, Latin America, Middle East, Central Africa

    • Symptoms

      • Abdominal cramps, frequent diarrhoea with loose, watery bowel motions, possible vomiting

    • Pathogenesis

      • Shigella, campylobater, Ecoli, salmonella infection

      • Usually mild, lasts 2 to 3 days. Rare for over 5 days.

  • Prevention

    • If you can’t peel it, boil it or cook it don’t eat it.

  • Treatment

    • Hydration, antimotility agents, antibiotic, hospital

  • Disease

    • Traveller’s diarrhoea


  • Common travel diseases

    • Epidemiology

      • Especially – Nepal, Mongolia, Vietnam, parts of Africa and Asia

    • Symptoms

      • Fever, neck stiffness, altered mental status, rash

    • Pathogenesis

      • Sepsis – meininges is first, infected fluid then passes into the spinal cord causing the other systems

  • Prevention

    • Antimicrobial prophylaxis,

  • Treatment

    • Appropriate antibiotic, shock management, glucocorticoids, sepsis treatment

  • Disease

    • Meningococcal infection


  • Common travel diseases

    • Epidemiology

      • Africa, South America, Asia

      • 16-33 mill per year, 216,000 deaths

    • Symptoms

      • Abdominal pain, fever, chills, constitutional symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly

    • Pathogenesis

      • Salmonella typhi (only human reservoir)

      • In small intestines access submucoa via M-cell, or direct penetration into the epithelial cel

      • Proliferate – hyertrophy, immune response, later on necrosis. Able to spread via blood and lymphatics

      • Eventually resides in monocyte or tissue macrophages in liver, spleen, bone marrow

  • Prevention

    • Vaccine

  • Treatment

    • Fluid management, antimicrobidal therapy

  • Disease

    • Typhoid


  • Common travel diseases

    • Epidemiology

      • Asia

      • 50,000 cases per year

    • Symptoms

      • Acute encephalitis (headache, fever, confusion ,drowsiness, fatigue)

      • Fever, diarrhoea, rigors, headahce, vomitng, weakness, mental status changes, neurological defects

    • Pathogenesis

      • Enzootic cycle, mosquitos, pigs, wading birds

      • That is all I got…

  • Prevention

    • Vaccine

  • Treatment

    • Control ICP, maintenance of cerebral perfusion seizure control, no good anti-viral agent

  • Disease

    • Japanese B encephalitis


  • Login