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Memory. Or A lecture you’re sure not to forget. Memory. The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model . The Environment. Sensation. Sensory Registers. Consciousness. Short Term Memory. Encoding. Retrieval . Long Term Memory. Sensory Registers. G R F K B Y P W V M S O. Sensory Registers.

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Memory

Or

A lecture you’re sure not to forget


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Memory

The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

The Environment

Sensation

Sensory Registers

Consciousness

Short Term Memory

Encoding

Retrieval

Long Term Memory


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Sensory Registers

G R F K

B Y P W

V M S O



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Sensory Registers

H Q N D

L A J C

U F B Q



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Short Term Memory

Also called Working Memory

Whatever information is in conscious awareness. Any information that we are remembering or manipulating occurs in STM.


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Short Term Memory

7

2

+

-

A typical individual’s digit span


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Demo

Tired

Pillow

Snooze

Drowsy

Naptime

Weary

Bedspread

Slumber

Doze

Dream

Sandman

Blanket

Siesta

Moonlight

Bedspread

Nighttime



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Serial Position

Primacy Effect

Recall %

Serial Position of word


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Serial Position

Recency Effect

Recall %

Serial Position of word


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False Memory

How many of you remembered the word sleep?

(It wasn’t actually on the list)


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Parallel Distributed Processing

Sleep

Blanket

Tired

Nighttime

Slumber

Awake

Party


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Levels of Processing

Structural – Is the word in capital letters ?

Phonemic – Does the word rhyme with “deep”?

Semantic – What does the word mean?

Personal – How does the word relate to you?


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Encoding Tips

Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order):

XCI AFB IVC RDN AIB MQZ


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Encoding Tips

Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order):


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Encoding Tips

Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order):

XCI AFB IVC RDN AIB MQZ

X CIA FBI VCR DNA IBM QZ


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Encoding Tips

Imagery

To remember:“Monkey, briefcase, spiral, dentist”


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Encoding Tips

Mnemonics:

Openness

Conscientiousness

Extraversion

Agreeableness

Neuroticism


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State Dependency

The surrounding environment can be used as a cue for memory


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Types of Retrieval

Recall – Coming up with an item from scratch

Recognition – Identifying an item from a list of items

Cue Dependent Recall – Coming up with an item after a hint is given


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Context Dependency

Try and Remember these paired associates

Strawberry – Jam

Boxing – Punch

Rip – Tear

Tennis – Ace

Clock – Wind

Small – Minute



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Context Dependency

Crying – Tear

Fruit – Punch

Picture – Frame

Puppy – Kitten

Monkey – Banana

Traffic – Jam

Jetstream – Wind

Glacier – Snow

Poker – Ace

Hour – Minute

Hiking – Trail

Butter – Knife


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Forgetting

The Decay Theory

Interference Theory:Retroactive Interference Proactive Interference

New replaces old

Old replaces new


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Conclusions

1) Short term memory is limited to ~7 items, but long term memory is unlimited

2) Because of a Parallel Distributed Processing Mechanism, the way to a better memory is adding lots of cues

3) Forgetting is due primarily to interference, when cues are blocked.


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Evaluate my Teaching

  • What about my teaching did you dislike

  • What about my teaching did you like

  • What was your favorite lecture

  • What was your least favorite lecture

  • What grade would you give me (A+ -- F)

  • Honestly – were the jokes funny?


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