Trends in the periodic table
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Trends in the periodic table:. Ionization Energy Atomic Radius Electron Affinity Electronegativity. Background. Electrons can jump between shells (Bohr’s model supported by line spectra) The electrons can be pushed so far that they escape the attraction of the nucleus

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Trends in the periodic table

Trends in the periodic table:

Ionization EnergyAtomic RadiusElectron AffinityElectronegativity


Background
Background

  • Electrons can jump between shells (Bohr’s model supported by line spectra)

  • The electrons can be pushed so far that they escape the attraction of the nucleus

  • Losing an electron is called ionization

  • An ion is an atom that has either a net positive or net negative charge

  • Q: what would the charge be on an atom that lost an electron? Gained two electrons?

  • A: +1 (because your losing a -ve electron)

  • A: -2 (because you gain 2 -ve electrons)


Ionization energy
Ionization energy

  • Ionization energy is the energy required to remove one outer electron from an atom

  • We will be examining the trends in ionization energy in groups and periods

  • Handout

  • Note: atomic radius is the distance from the nucleus to the outer electron shell

  • Follow directions on sheet and answer questions (you can use textbook for help)

  • Ignore H when looking at trends, look at many periods/groups when summarizing trends





Answers
Answers

2 a) – He, Ne, Ar, Noble gases

2 b) – Li, Na, K, Alkali metals

3 a) – Li, Na, K, Alkali metals

3 b) – He, Ne, Ar, Noble gases

4. As one increases, the other decreases

5. Ionization energy increases

Atomic radius decreases

6. Ionization energy decreases

Atomic radius increases


11p+ 12n°

11p+ 12n°

10p+ 10n°

7.

Na has 11 electrons

Na+ has 10 electrons

Ne has 10 electrons

  • electron configuration of Na+ resembles Ne

  • Alkali metals become like noble gases

  • Radius increases because shells are added

  • Increased radius will make it easier to lose an electron because of greater distance between positive and negative charges


9. Proton # increases. More protons means greater attraction between nucleus and outer electron thus higher ionization energy.

The greater attraction also means that outer electrons are brought closer to the nucleus, thus smaller atomic radius results.

Li (enc = 1)

Be (enc = 2)

B (enc = 3)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+


  • Noble gases are ignored attraction between nucleus and outer electron thus higher ionization energy.

  • Electron affinity is energy associated with an atom gaining an electron. It is highest in the top right where atoms are smallest with the greatest number of protons

  • Electronegativity is a number that describes the relative ability of an atom (when bonded) to attract electrons. The trend is the same as affinity for the same reason


Answers1
Answers attraction between nucleus and outer electron thus higher ionization energy.

2 a) – He, Ne, Ar (1), Noble gases (1)

2 b) – Li, Na, K (1), Alkali metals (1)

3 a) – Li, Na, K, Alkali metals (1)

3 b) – He, Ne, Ar, Noble gases (1)

4. As one increases, the other decreases (1)

5. Ionization energy increases (1)

Atomic radius decreases (1)

6. Ionization energy decreases (1)

Atomic radius increases (1)

/11


11p attraction between nucleus and outer electron thus higher ionization energy.+ 12n°

11p+ 12n°

10p+ 10n°

7.

Na has 11 electrons

Na+ has 10 electrons

Ne has 10 electrons

  • Diagram of Na(1) & Na+(1), Na+ resembles Ne (1)

  • Alkali metals become like noble gases (1)

  • Radius increases because shells are added (1)

  • Increased radius will make it easier to lose an electron because of greater distance between positive and negative charges (1) /6


9. Proton # increases (1). More protons means greater attraction between nucleus and outer electron (1) thus higher ionization energy.

The greater attraction also means that outer electrons are brought closer to the nucleus, thus smaller atomic radius results.

Li (enc = 1)

Be (enc = 2)

B (enc = 3)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+


  • Noble gases are ignored (1) attraction between nucleus and outer electron (1) thus higher ionization energy.

  • Electron affinity is energy associated with an atom gaining an electron (1). It is highest in the top right (1) where atoms are smallest with the greatest number of protons

  • Electronegativity is a number that describes the relative ability of an atom (when bonded) to attract electrons (1). The trend is the same as affinity (1) for the same reason

    9 – 10: /7

    Total: /24

    Note: graphs from day 1 were marked separately

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