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Training Theory: High School Throwers Matt Lydum, Defiance College January 27, 2005. “It takes 10 years of extensive training to excel in anything.” Herbert Simon - Nobel Laureate.

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Training theory high school throwers matt lydum defiance college january 27 2005 l.jpg
Training Theory: High School ThrowersMatt Lydum, Defiance CollegeJanuary 27, 2005


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“It takes 10 years of extensive training to excel in anything.”

Herbert Simon - Nobel Laureate


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Theories about training are generally based on yearly (or longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.


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Matveyev & Selye longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

Much of how we think and talk about training theory is based on two big ideas.

H. SELYE introduced the concept of General Adaptation, from which we derive supercompensation.

L. MATVEYEV described the relationship between volume and intensity and how it related to timing a peak performance.

Fundamentals of Sports Training Progress Publishers: Moscow, 1982.


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Adaptation longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.


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Matveyev longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.http://nhomag.com/99_v1_n1_5.asp


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Periodization: Cracking the Code longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

users.compaqnet.be/.../ training-schedules.html


Periodization cracking the code http www judoamerica com ijca periodisation l.jpg
Periodization: Cracking the Code longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.http://www.judoamerica.com/ijca/periodisation/


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Periodization: vocab longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

  • Move

  • Unit

  • Session

  • Micro-cycle

  • Meso-cycle

  • Phase

  • Period: preparation, competition, transition

  • Macro-cycle

  • Olympiad

  • Career


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Moves & Units longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

  • Continually build and update your TRAINING MENU

  • Combinations of moves become units (routines, circuits, etc.)

  • Speeds up writing training programs

  • Allows for more time teaching specific skills (ex.: group one at med. Ball station, group two with coach working on technique)

  • Increases density of training (less standing around)

  • Aids in record keeping


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Med. Ball Routine 1 longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

Between legs forward

Between legs back

Over the head f’ward

Jump front

Jump back

Hammer release left

Hammer release rt.

Partner shot left

Partner shot rt.

Push press for ht.

In-place jumps

Rockets

Tucks

One leg tuck right

One leg tuck left

Skateboard right

Skateboard left

Speed skater

360° rocket left

360° rocket right

4 count squat thrusts

Moves & Units (examples)


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Session & Micro-cycles longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

  • 3-12 units per session, 3-10 sessions/week.

  • Bowerman and the weekly plan

    • “Hard / Easy”

    • Coaching Track & Field William J. Bowerman. Houghton Mifflin Publishers, 1974.

  • Complimentary and Compatible Training

    • Put units that go well together in the same session

    • Build the weekly plan to maximize adaptation and learning

    • Propers to Boo Schexnayder, LSU / USATF CE


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Building the weekly plan: example longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

RANGE or VARIABLE INTENSITY THROWING

  • Teach the difference between sub-maximal intensity and all-out throws.

  • TOO MANY YOUNG THROWERS HAVE ONLY ONE GEAR.

  • Up to 50 throws at 50-75%, <10 throws @ >95%

  • SUBJECTIVE: 75% effort

  • OBJECTIVE: 75% of PR or goal distance

  • Taking lots of “hard” attempts everyday waters down the potential of high intensity throwing (nervous system implications).


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Mesos, phases, and periods longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

The “system” is not conducive to classical periodization…

  • 3 or 4 month high school season

  • Federation, league & school rules

  • Two or three sport athletes

  • Year-round training in some sports

  • Dual meets on weekdays

  • Etc.


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Solutions longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

  • Think big-picture

    • Fall and Winter sport as general prep

    • Adolescents adapt quickly, (always try to pay attention and learn about adaptation)

    • Adolescents get bored quickly (a compressed season might keep some potential stars from drifting off)


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Solutions longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

Within the brief high school season…

  • move from general to specific

  • Use progressive loading

  • Steadily increase volume

  • Time unloading (↓volume and ↑ intensity) to accomplish a “peak”

  • VOLUME IS THE MOST CONTROLLABLE VARIABLE


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Solution (example) longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

Use week-day dual meets as training days (sample training program at a meet)

  • Jogging

  • Loosening moves

  • Locomotive moves (including skipping and lateral)

  • Dynamic range of motion

  • Between leg forward and back

  • Partial throws

  • Full throws

  • 3-6 competitive throws per event

    (perhaps some drills or more throws if appropriate)

  • Jogging

  • Hurdle mobility

    Eat*

    *It is widely accepted that eating a healthy snack soon after a strenuous training or competition aids recovery.

    See http://www.nsca-lift.org/perform/articles/02056.pdf


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(Dys)adaptation… longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

Inability to adapt well to training

  • Reasons:

    • Resistance:

      • misconceptions,

      • problems with authority,

      • coaching cues seem inconsistent with previous (other) coaches,

      • fear of success


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Dysadaptation (cont.) longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

More reasons:

  • Poor nutrition

  • Not enough rest

  • Other stressors

    • Family

    • Money

    • School

    • Adolescence in general


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Dysadaptation (cont.) longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

More reasons:

  • Stimulus (load) is inappropriate

    • Too much

    • Too little (habituation)

    • Too complex

    • Incorrect

      • Not fundamentally and/or biomechanically sound, i.e.: off balance, failure to generate a summate force.

  • Exhaustion (overtraining)


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Peaking longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

Agricultural epigraphs…

  • The hay is in the barn

  • Plant your seeds before the harvest is due


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Peaking longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

  • Unloading: ↓ volume ↑ intensity

  • 3-7 days before key competition

  • Practice Peaking (likely only once or twice in a high school season)

    • Throw while supercompensated (timing and rhythm will be different)

      • How? Measuring tapes, video, simulated comp. (allow > 7 minutes between throws), mid. Season invitationals


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Peaking longer) cycles. The High School Coach faces challenges using these principles to create a training plan for a very short season.

  • Teach peaking: make it a team tradition

    • Make it an expectation

  • Anticipate excited (supercomped) behavior. Teach your athletes not to blow it by doing something unwise in the weight room or overtraining too close to the meet.


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