The basal metabolic rate
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THE BASAL METABOLIC RATE. D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY. THE METABOLIC RATE. METABOLIC RATE = ENERGY EXPENDITURE PER UNIT TIME (Calories/hour). FACTORS INFLUENCING METABOLIC RATE. EXERCISE FOOD INTAKE SHIVERING ANXIETY.

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THE BASAL METABOLIC RATE

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The basal metabolic rate

THE BASAL METABOLIC RATE

D. C. MIKULECKY

PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY

VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY


The metabolic rate

THE METABOLIC RATE

METABOLIC RATE =

ENERGY EXPENDITURE PER UNIT TIME

(Calories/hour)


Factors influencing metabolic rate

FACTORS INFLUENCING METABOLIC RATE

  • EXERCISE

  • FOOD INTAKE

  • SHIVERING

  • ANXIETY


Basal metabolic rate

BASAL METABOLIC RATE

  • BODY’S “IDLING SPEED” (THE MINIMAL WAKING RATE OF INTERNAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE)

  • DIRECT CALORIMETERY(MEASURE RATE OF HEAT PRODUCTION)

  • INDIRECT CALORIMETERY (MEASURE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION)

  • (SEE LAB NOTES FROM DEC.2)


Factors which influence bmr

FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE BMR

  • FOOD INTAKE

  • THYROID HOMONE

  • EVEN LOWER LEVELS DURING SLEEP (10-15%)


Energy

ENERGY

  • THE CAPACITY TO DO WORK

  • THE CALORIE IS THE AMMOUNT OF HEAT ENERGY NECESSARY TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1 GRAM OF WATER 1 DEGREE CENTIGRADE

  • THE NUTRITIONAL CALORIE IS 1000 CALORIES OR THE KILOCALORIE


Energy balance with respect to the body

ENERGY BALANCE WITH RESPECT TO THE BODY

INPUT - OUTPUT = STORAGE OR DEPLETION

(CONTINUITY EQUATION E/t = 2E)

(

)

OUTPUT = INTERNAL WORK + EXTERNAL WORK

INTERNAL WORK ------> HEAT


Storage and or depletion

STORAGE AND/OR DEPLETION

  • NEUTRAL ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INPUT AND OUTPUT MATCH

  • POSITIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INTAKE EXCEEDS OUTPUT - ENERGY IS STORED AS GLYCOGEN OR FAT

  • NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN OUTPUT EXCEEDS INTAKE- ENERGY STORES ARE DEPLETED


Food as fuel

FOOD AS FUEL

  • CARBOHYDRATE 4 CAL/G

  • PROTEIN 4 CAL/G

  • FAT 9 CAL/GRAM

  • ETHANOL 7 CAL/G


Food as stored fuel

FOOD AS STORED FUEL

  • 3500 CALORIES = 1 LB OF BODY MASS


Efficiency of metabolism

EFFICIENCY OF METABOLISM

  • 50% GOES TO ATP

  • 50% GOES TO HEAT


Food intake

FOOD INTAKE

  • CONTROLED BY HYPOTHALAMUS

  • FEEDING CENTERS

  • SATIETY CENTERS


Control of fuel metabolism

CONTROL OF FUEL METABOLISM

  • GLYCOGENESIS

  • GLYCOGENOLYSIS

  • GLUCONEOGENESIS

  • PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • PROTEIN DEGRADATION

  • FAT SYNTHESIS

  • FAT BREAKDOWN


Anabolism vs catabolism

ANABOLISM VS CATABOLISM

  • BUILD UP VS BREAKDOWN OF LARGE MOLECULES

  • ANABOLISM REQUIRES ENERGY (ATP)

  • CATABOLISM:ENERGY PRODUCTION


Blood glucose

BLOOD GLUCOSE

  • ONE GRAM YIELDS ABOUT 4 CALORIES

  • 70 KG PERSON 2,000 CALORIES/DAY

  • NEED 500G GLUCOSE

  • AS AN ISOTONIC SOLUTION THAT WOULD BE ABOUT 10L

  • THE ACTUAL AMOUNT IS ABOUT 20G OR ENOUGH FOR 1 HOUR


Pancreatic hormones and blood glucose

PANCREATIC HORMONES AND BLOOD GLUCOSE

  • INSULIN

  • GLUCAGON


Insulin action on blood sugar

INSULIN: ACTION ON BLOOD SUGAR

  • BETA CELLS IN ISLETS OF LANGERHANS: INSULIN

  • FACILITIES GLUCOSE ENTRY INTO CELLS

  • STIMULATES GLYCOGENESIS

  • INHIBITS GLYCOGENOLYSIS

  • INHIBITS GLUCONEOGENESIS


Insulin action on fat

INSULIN: ACTION ON FAT

  • INCREASES TRANSPORT INTO ADIPOSE CELLS

  • PROMTES TRIGLYCERIDE SYNTHESIS

  • INHIBITS LIPOLYSIS


Insulin action on protein

INSULIN: ACTION ON PROTEIN

  • PROMOTES UPTAKE OF AA BY MUSCLE AND OTHER TISSUE

  • PROMOTES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  • INHIBITS PROTEIN DEGRADATION


Control of insulin secretion

CONTROL OF INSULIN SECRETION

  • NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: BLOOD SUGAR

  • BLOOD AA

  • GI HORMONES

  • PARASYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY


Two types of diabetes mellitus

TWO TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS

  • TYPE I: AUTOIMMUNE DESTRUCTION OF BETA CELLS, LACK OF INSULIN SECRETION

  • TYPE II: REDUCED SENSITIVITY OF INSULIN RECEPTORS


Acute effects of diabetes mellitus

ACUTE EFFECTS OF DIABETES MELLITUS

  • EXTRACELLULAR GLUCOSE EXCESS

  • GLUCOSE IN URINE

  • EXCESS FLUID LOSS

  • CIRCULATORY FAILURE

  • RENAL FAILURE

  • NERVOUS SYSTEM MALFUNCTION DUE TO DEHYDRATION

  • EXCESSIVE FOOD INTAKE

  • PROGRESSIVE WEIGHT LOSS

  • MOBILIZTION OF FAT

  • KETOSIS

  • ACIDOSIS

  • COMA AND DEATH


Glucagon

GLUCAGON

  • PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS

  • GENERALLY OPPOSES ACTIONS OF INSULIN

  • DECREASE GLYCOGEN SYNTHESIS

  • PROMOTE GLYCOGENOLYSIS

  • STIMULATE GLUCONEOGENESIS

  • PROMOTES FAT BREAKDOWN

  • ONLY IN LIVER: PROTEIN CATABOLISM


Epinephrine cortisol and growth hormone

EPINEPHRINE, CORTISOL, AND GROWTH HORMONE

  • ALL INCREASE BLOOD GLUCOSE AND FATTY ACIDS

  • CORTISOL INCREASES BLOOD AA AND DECREASES MUSCLE PROTEIN

  • GH DECREASES BLOOD AA AND INCREASES MUSCLE PROTEIN


Overall regulation of blood glucose

OVERALL REGULATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE

(+)

RELEASE

FROM LIVER

EPINEPHRINE

AND

NOREPINEPHRIN

(+)

(-)

(+)

GLUCAGON

BLOOD

GLUCOSE

INSULIN

GLUCOCORTICOIDS

(-)

(+)

(-)

GH

CONSUMPTION

BY

MUSCLE AND FAT CELLS


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