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Table 22-2 Page 493. Table 22-2 Common Diseases Transmitted to Humans Through Contaminated Drinking Water. Type of Organism Bacteria Viruses Parasitic protozoa Parasitic worms. Disease Typhoid fever Cholera Bacterial dysentery Enteritis Infectious hepatitis Amoebic dysentery

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Table 22 2 page 493 l.jpg

Table 22-2Page 493

Table 22-2 Common Diseases Transmitted to Humans Through Contaminated Drinking Water

Type of Organism

Bacteria

Viruses

Parasitic protozoa

Parasitic worms

Disease

Typhoid fever

Cholera

Bacterial dysentery

Enteritis

Infectious hepatitis

Amoebic dysentery

Giardiasis

Schistosomiasis

Effects

Diarrhea, severe vomiting, enlarged spleen, inflamed intestine; often fatal if untreated

Diarrhea, severe vomiting, dehydration; often fatal if untreated

Diarrhea; rarely fatal except in infants without proper treatment

Severe stomach pain, nausea, vomiting; rarely fatal

Fever, severe headache, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, jaundice, enlarged liver;

rarely fatal but may cause permanent liver damage

Severe diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain, chills, fever; if not treated can cause liver abscess, bowel perforation, and death

Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, flatulence, belching, fatigue

Abdominal pain, skin rash, anemia, chronic fatigue, and chronic general ill health


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Figure 22-2Page 493


Figure 22 3 page 494 l.jpg

Figure 22-3Page 494

Water

Quality

DO (ppm) at 20˚C

Good

8-9

Slightly

polluted

6.7-8

Moderately

polluted

4.5-6.7

Heavily

polluted

Below 4.5

Gravely

polluted

Below 4


Figure 22 4 page 494 l.jpg

Figure 22-4Page 494

NONPOINT SOURCES

Rural homes

Cropland

Urban streets

Animal feedlot

POINT SOURCES

Suburban development

Factory

Wastewater treatment plant


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Normal clean water organisms

(trout, perch, bass,

mayfly, stonefly)

Trash fish

(carp, gar,

leeches)

Fish absent, fungi,

sludge worms,

bacteria

(anaerobic)

Trash fish

(carp, gar,

leeches)

Normal clean water organisms

(trout, perch, bass,

mayfly, stonefly)

8 ppm

Types of

organisms

8 ppm

Dissolved oxygen (ppm)

Biological oxygen

demand

Clean Zone

Recovery Zone

Septic Zone

Decomposition

Zone

Clean Zone

Figure 22-5Page 496


Animation l.jpg

Animation

Stream pollution animation.

Click to view animation.


Figure 22 6 page 498 l.jpg

Figure 22-6Page 498

Water

0.000002 ppm

Phytoplankton

0.0025 ppm

Herring gull

124 ppm

Herring gull eggs

124 ppm

Zooplankton

0.123ppm

Lake trout

4.83 ppm

Rainbow smelt

1.04 ppm


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Natural runoff

(nitrates and

phosphates

Natural runoff

(nitrates and

phosphates

Nitrogen compounds

produced by cars

and factories

Discharge of untreated

municipal sewage

(nitrates and phosphates)

Discharge of

detergents

( phosphates)

Inorganic fertilizer runoff

(nitrates and phosphates)

Manure runoff

from feedlots

(nitrates, phosphates,

ammonia)

Discharge of treated

municipal sewage

(primary and secondary

treatment:

nitrates and phosphates)

Runoff from streets,

lawns, and construction

lots (nitrates and

phosphates)

Lake ecosystem

nutrient overload

and breakdown of

chemical cycling

Runoff and erosion

(from cultivation,

mining, construction,

and poor land use)

Dissolving of

nitrogen oxides

(from internal combustion

engines and furnaces)

Figure 22-7Page 499


Figure 22 8 page 500 l.jpg

Figure 22-8Page 500

CANADA

Nipigon Bay

Jackfish Bay

Thunder Bay

Silver Bay

St. Mary’s R.

St. Lawrence R.

Spanish R.

St. Louis R.

MICHIGAN

Penetary Bay

Sturgeon Bay

WISCONSIN

MICHIGAN

Saginaw

Bay

NEW YORK

Niagara Falls

Saginaw R.

System

Grand R.

MINNESOTA

Niagara R.

St. Clair R.

Thames R.

Buffalo R.

Detroit R.

Rouge R.

Raisin R.

Ashtabula R.

PENNSYLVANIA

IOWA

Cuyahoga R.

Maumee R.

Rocky R.

Black R.

ILLINOIS

INDIANA

OHIO

Great Lakes drainage basin

Most polluted areas, according to the Great Lakes Water Quality Board

“Hot spots” of toxic concentrations in water and sediments

Eutrophic areas


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Hazardous waste injection well

Pesticides

and fertilizers

De-icing road salt

Coal strip mine runoff

Buried gasoline and solvent tank

Cesspool septic tank

Pumping well

Gasoline station

Water pumping well

Waste lagoon

Sewer

Landfill

Leakage from faulty casing

Accidental spills

Discharge

Unconfined freshwater aquifer

Confined aquifer

Confined freshwater aquifer

Groundwater flow

Polluted air

Figure 22-9Page 502


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Solutions

Groundwater Pollution

Prevention

Cleanup

Find substitutes for toxic chemicals

Pump to surface, clean, and return to aquifer (very expensive)

Keep toxic chemicals out of the environment

Install monitoring wells near

landfills and underground tanks

Inject microorganisms to clean up contamination (less expensive but still costly)

Require leak detectors on underground tanks

Ban hazardous waste disposal

in landfills and injection wells

Pump nanoparticles of inorganic compounds to remove pollutants (may be the cheapest, easiest, and most effective method but is still being developed)

Store harmful liquids in aboveground tanks with leak detection and collection systems

Figure 22-10Page 503


Figure 22 11 page 504 l.jpg

Figure 22-11Page 504

Industry

Nitrogen oxides from autos

and smokestacks; toxic

chemicals, and heavy

metals in effluents flow

into bays and estuaries.

Cities

Toxic metals and

oil from streets and

parking lots pollute

waters; sewage

adds nitrogen and

phosphorus.

Urban sprawl

Bacteria and

viruses from sewers

and septic tanks

contaminate shellfish

beds and close

beaches; runoff

of fertilization from

lawns adds nitrogen

and phosphorus.

Constructionsites

Sediments are washed into waterways,

choking fish and plants, clouding

waters, and blocking sunlight.

Farms

Run off of pesticides, manure, and

fertilizers adds toxins and excess

nitrogen and phosphorus.

Red tides

Excess nitrogen causes explosive

growth of toxic microscopic algae,

poisoning fish and marine mammals.

Closed

shellfish beds

Closed

beach

Oxygen-depleted

zone

Toxic sediments

Chemicals and toxic metals

contaminate shellfish beds,

kill spawning fish, and

accumulate in the tissues

of bottom feeders.

Healthy zone

Clear, oxygen-rich waters

promote growth of plankton

and sea grasses, and support fish.

Oxygen-depleted zone

Sedimentation and algae

overgrowth reduce sunlight,

kill beneficial sea grasses,

use up oxygen, and degrade habitat.


Figure 22 12 page 505 l.jpg

Figure 22-12Page 505

Mississippi

River Basin

Ohio

River

Missouri

River

Mississippi

River

LOUISIANA

Mississippi

River

Depleted

Oxygen

Gulf of Mexico


Figure 22 13 page 506 l.jpg

Figure 22-13Page 506

Cooperstown

NEW YORK

PENNSYLVANIA

ATLANTIC

OCEAN

Harrisburg

NEW

JERSEY

MARYLAND

Baltimore

Washington

WEST

VIRGINIA

DELAWARE

Richmond

Chesapeake Bay

VIRGINIA

Norfolk

Drainage

basin

No oxygen

Low concentrations

of oxygen


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Solutions

Coastal Water Pollution

Prevention

Cleanup

Reduce input of toxic pollutants

Improve oil-spill cleanup

capabilities

Separate sewage and storm lines

Ban dumping of wastes and sewage by maritime and cruise ships in coastal waters

Sprinkle nanoparticles over an oil or sewage spill to dissolve the oil or sewage without creating harmful byproducts

(still under development)

Ban ocean dumping of sludge and hazardous dredged material

Protect sensitive areas from development, oil drilling, and oil shipping

Require at least secondary

treatment of coastal sewage

Regulate coastal development

Use wetlands, solar-aquatic, or

other methods to treat sewage

Recycle used oil

Require double hulls for oil tankers

Figure 22-14Page 508


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Septic tank with manhole (for cleanout)

Household

wastewater

Nonperforated pipe

Distribution box (optional)

Gravel or

crushed

stone

Drain

field

Vent pipe

Figure 22-15Page 510

Perforated pipe


Figure 22 16 page 511 l.jpg

Figure 22-16Page 511

Secondary

Primary

Grit

chamber

Chlorine

disinfection tank

Bar screen

Settling tank

Aeration tank

Settling tank

To river, lake,

or ocean

Raw sewage

from sewers

(kills bacteria)

Sludge

Activated sludge

Air pump

Sludge digester

Sludge drying bed

Disposed of in landfill or

ocean or applied to cropland,

pasture, or rangeland


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Odors

Odors may cause illness or indicate presence of harmful gases

Dust Particles

Particles of dried sludge carry viruses and harmful bacteria that can be inhaled, infect cuts or enter homes.

Exposure

Children may walk or play in fertilized fields.

BUFFER ZONE

Livestock Poisoning

Cows may die after grazing on sludge-treated fields.

Sludge

Groundwater

Contamination

Harmful chemicals and pathogens may leach into groundwater and shallow wells.

Surface Runoff

Harmful chemicals and pathogens may pollute nearby streams, lakes, ponds, and wetlands.

Figure 22-17Page 512


Figure 22 18 page 513 l.jpg

Figure 22-18Page 513

(1)Raw sewage drains by

gravity into the first pool

and flows through a long

perforated PVC pipe into

a bed of limestone gravel.

(3) Wastewater flows through

another perforated pipe

into a second pool, where

the same process is repeated.

Sewage

Treated

water

Wetland type

plants

Wetland type

plants

45 centimeter

layer of limestone

gravel coated with

decomposing bacteria

First concrete pool

Second concrete pool

(2) Microbes in the limestone gravel

break down the sewage into

chemicals that can be absorbed

by the plant roots, and the gravel

absorbs phosphorus.

(4) Treated water flowing from the

second pool is nearly free of

bacteria and plant nutrients.

Treated water can be recycled

for irrigation and flushing toilets.


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Solutions

Water Pollution

  • Prevent groundwater contamination

  • Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff

  • Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation

  • Find substitutes for toxic pollutants

  • Work with nature to treat sewage

  • Practice four R's of resource use (refuse, reduce, recycle, reuse)

  • Reduce resource waste

  • Reduce air pollution

  • Reduce poverty

  • Reduce birth rates

Figure 22-19Page 516


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What Can You Do?

Water Pollution

  • Fertilize your garden and yard plants with manure or compost instead of commercial inorganic fertilizer.

  • Minimize your use of pesticides.

  • Never apply fertilizer or pesticides near a body of water.

  • Grow or buy organic foods.

  • Compost your food wastes.

  • Do not use water fresheners in toilets.

  • Do not flush unwanted medicines down the toilet.

  • Do not pour pesticides, paints, solvents, oil, antifreeze, or other products containing harmful chemicals down the drain or onto the ground.

Figure 22-20Page 516


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