Spirits. A supernatural being that is less powerful than a god and is usually more localized; often one of a collection of nonindividualized supernatural beings that are not given specific names and identities.
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A supernatural being that is less powerful than a god and is usually more localized; often one of a collection of nonindividualized supernatural beings that are not given specific names and identities.
Spirits are very much involved in humanly affairs and can have a negative or positive influence.
Spirits also reside in the human world, and are often seen as inhabiting natural or man-made objects.
Ireland, Brittish Isles
Statues and Shrines
A shrine is an object or building that contains sacred objects or is associated with a venerated person or deity
Ex:: Fairy Circle
Ex: Aten temple, Akhenaten
Kami, Obake (bakemono) or “a thing that changes”, and Yokai (usually has some sort of supernatural power)
1 of 3 types of beings (Jinn, humans, angels) described in the Qur’an.
When visible, can alter shape and features at will.
Like humans in that they can be good or bad, have different personalities, get married, have families
A person can form an alliance with a jinn, gaining supernatural powers in the process
Ex: Genii from Arabian Nights stories
Anthropological study: Jinn of the Hofriyat village
Black Jinn: Possession leads to serious illness and sometimes, death.
Red Jinn (Zairan pl., Zar sing.): cause illness. Of different cultures and ethnic groups. Can be good/bad, have diff. behaviors, but tend to be amoral and easily lead by emotions, fickle.
A Zar may possess members of the community, usually women of childbearing age. Possession is lifelong and women will attend possession ceremonies, wear clothing and eat a specific diet designed to pacify the Zar.
The woman will therefore maintain a “cure” and the Zar will gain access to the human world.
Christian Angels and Demons
Angles:In Christianity, Judaism and Islam mediators between humanity and God. Often represented as agents of revelation, executors of divine will or as witnesses to divine activity.
Besides Ghosts, Angels are most highly popular supernatural entities in American Culture.
Demons: An evil spirit being
Demons and Satan rebelled against God and were cast out of heaven
Closely associated with human evil, Hell, and Adam/Eve’s casting out of The Garden of Eden
In Catholicism, they are those that are cast out during Exorcism.
The Exorcism of Emily Rose clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B0I3SAizRbk
Based on Anneliese Michel: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4n9vK0_mdk
15th-17th Century Europe/America Witchcraze:
Incubi: Male demons who have sex with human women while they sleep, resulting in the birth of demons, witches and deformed children.
Succubae: Female demons who have sex with human men while they sleep, resulting in damnation of the men’s souls.
Atheism (literally, no God): Disbelief in or denial of the existence of God or gods.
Historical meaning: Not accepting the current conception of the divine.
16th century (Europe): used as an insult to describe someone who did not agree with you about the nature of God. At this time, there was no separation of (some sort of) God/gods from day to day living.
This was before The Enlightenment, before Science became a substitute for religion in Western lives.
18th century and the Enlightenment
Separation of Church and State, advent of the Scientific Method. God was seen as a fact of life that could be examined in much the same way as the natural world.
Concept of God was not rejected outright, but rather the anthropomorphism attached to God was rejected.
Atheist was becoming less of an insult and more a badge of intellect and learning.
Agnosticism (literally, knowledge not attainable): The question of the existence of a god is unsolvable, unprovable.
Compare to Gnosis: direct experiential knowledge of the supernatural or divine.