Apollo Program for Biomass Liquids
Download
1 / 27

purdue - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 125 Views
  • Uploaded on

Apollo Program for Biomass Liquids What Will it Take?. Michael R. Ladisch Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering Agricultural and Biological Engineering Purdue University. Corn. Source: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation . Supply Chain. Sun. Water. Grow. Harvest.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'purdue' - daniel_millan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

Apollo Program for Biomass Liquids

What Will it Take?

Michael R. Ladisch

Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering

Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Purdue University


Slide2 l.jpg

Corn

Source: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation


Slide3 l.jpg

Supply Chain

Sun

Water

Grow

Harvest

Seed

Fertilizer

Store

Transport

to Bioprocessing


Build on existing infrastructure for corn l.jpg
Build on Existing Infrastructure for Corn

Trucking the feedstock

Trips of 5 to 40 miles, one way, for corn

Costs about

12 cents per bushel corn

4.6 cents per gallon ethanol

$ 5 / ton (dry basis) corn

10 cents per cu. ft. corn

Maier and Ileleji, 2006


Slide5 l.jpg

Corn Weighs more than Corn Stover (Cellulose)translates to larger storage volumes for cellulose feedstock for a given ethanol production

Corn

Corn Stover (Cellulose)


Supply chains store then transport l.jpg
Supply Chains: Store, then Transport

Sun

Water

Grow

Harvest

Seed

Fertilizer

Transport

Store

to Bioprocessing


Bioprocessing l.jpg
Bioprocessing

Enzymes

Yeast

Glucose xylose

Pretreatment

Hydrolysis

Fermentation

Fuel Ethanol

Distillation

Delivery to markets Infrastructure


Projections us ethanol production l.jpg
Projections: US Ethanol Production

2006 4.8 (corn)

2008 7.5 (corn + cellulose)

2015 12.0 (corn + more cellulose)

2030 60.0 (a lot of cellulose+ corn)

It will happen here



Slide10 l.jpg

Biomass Resources in Tons / sq km /year

Sets stage for Cellulose Ethanol

From NREL Website, 2005


Slide11 l.jpg

Corn Stover: 1 to 2 tons /acre

Leaves

Cobs

Stalks

Roots


Slide12 l.jpg

Bioethanol Production

Feedstock

Preparation

Pretreatment

Hydrolysis of Solids

Ethanol

Fermentation


Slide13 l.jpg

Pretreatment

Hemicellulose

Pretreatmentgives enzyme accessible substrate

Cellulose

Lignin

Amorphous Region

Crystalline Region


Components of plant cell walls l.jpg
Components of plant cell walls

Cellulose

Cellulose

Fermentable sugars obtained from cellulose in 1819

Lignin

Lignin

Extractives

Extractives

Hemicellulose

(need special yeast to convert to ethanol)

Ash

Ash

Chapple, 2006; Ladisch, 1979


Yeast metabolism pentose fermentation l.jpg
Yeast Metabolism: pentose fermentation

Xylose

Glucose

NAD(P)H

NAD(P)+

Xylitol

Glucose-6-P

NAD+

NADH

Fructose-6-P

Xylulose

Glyceraldehyde-3-P

Xylulose-5-P

NAD+

NADH

3-Phosphoglycerate

Ethanol

PPP

NADH

NAD+

Phosphoenolpyruvate

Ho et al

TCA Cycle

Pyruvate

Acetaldehyde


Slide16 l.jpg

Yields of Ethanol from Corn Stover (Cellulose Ethanol)

From Cellulose: 50 to 55 gal / ton

From Xylan: 30 to 35 gal / ton

Total: 80 to 85 gal / ton.

Corresponds to about 250,000 tons /yr for 20 million gal per year plant

Requires engineered yeast, pretreatment cellulase enzymes


Slide17 l.jpg

Other molecules from biomass sugars

Fermentable sugars are the feedstock

Products in addition to ethanol

Butanol, Acetone

2,3 Butanediol

Acetic, Lactic acid

Microbial polysaccahrides (for enhanced oil recovery)

Ladisch et al, 1979; 1991


Slide18 l.jpg

Plant Cell Wall Genomics at Purdue

Identified over 1100 genes involved in cell wall construction

Generated over 900 mutants in Arabidopsis and 200 in maize; maize mutants represent a resource of genetic diversity for feedstock testing

Characterized cell walls of these materials using spectroscopic, chemical, and imaging assays

Identified novel cell-wall genes that can contribute to feedstock diversity

Used genetics and molecular biology to analyze the functions of cell-wall gene products

http://cellwall.genomics.purdue.edu

*Supported by the NSF Plant Genome Research and REU Programs


Trees 5 to 10 tons acre l.jpg
Trees: 5 to 10 tons /acre

Chapple and Meilan, 2006

http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/



1 bale 970 lbs 2000 miles l.jpg
1 Bale = 970 lbs = 2000 miles

Using Hay

Assuming 50 gal x 40 mpg

Engel, 2006


Vision l.jpg
Vision

Learning and engagement to illustrate science and engineering as agents of change

Transfer discovery from laboratory to the field or plant in a contiguous high tech / biotech / agriculture corridor

Combine engineering, science and agriculture to catalyze of sustainable growth of a US bioenergy sector

Work is not complete until it proven valuable to industry.


Slide23 l.jpg

Challenges: What will it take?

Utilize biomass materials from a wide range of sources:

Cellulosics

Fiber

Corn

Apply biotechnology and nanotechnology to

develop bio-catalytic conversion routes

Yeasts

Fixed bed catalysts

Enzymes


Opportunities l.jpg
Opportunities

Designer crops for bio-energy production

Bioprocess Engineering built around advanced biocatalysts (yeasts, enzymes, fixed bed catalysts) that process designer crops

High energy corn that maximizes polysaccharides rather than oil or protein

Understand role of forages (switchgrass) and wood poplar grown for energy crops

Seeds for the same


Slide25 l.jpg

Research

Plant genomics

Microbial genomics

Bioprocess Engineering

Agriculture

Economics

Industrial Test Beds


Slide26 l.jpg

Bioprocess Discovery Activities

  • advanced pretreatments integrated with plant science

  • to enhance the digestibility/reactivity of the fiber component

  • (cellulose and hemicellulose) of DG,

  • enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated celluloses

  • to produce fermentable sugars, remove part or all of the cellulose and hemicellulose, increase feed value of residual solids,

  • ferment hexose and pentosesusing genetically engineered yeasts

  • to ethanol and their transformation to other biobased products,

  • Bio-catalysts to make diesel from soybeans, sugars from biomass

  • convert alcohol and soybean oil to diesel

  • Separations technology

  • energy efficient recovery form water of different bio-products

  • 6. comprehensive economic analysis

  • of the processes, technologies, and markets, incorporating uncertainty in key technological and market parameters.


Slide27 l.jpg

Concluding Thoughts

“Increasing energy consumption, coupled with decreased petroleum supplies, has made development of alternate energy sources a pressing national problem.

“Changes in technology and philosophy will be required in order to establish a renewable resource base for the …industry.

“Utilizing cellulosics as this basis, we are tapping the earth’s most abundant and readily renewable resource, while providing our industry with relatively inexpensive, and reliable, raw materials.

Quote from 1979.


ad