CLASSICATION OF SKILLS. Analysis of movement skills enables us to understand their requirements and decide on the best ways to teach, practise and improve them. To analyse movement skills psychologists have identified a range of characteristics.
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ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE (OPEN-CLOSED) CONTINUUM
CONTINUITY (DISCRETE-SERIAL-CONTINUOUS) CONTINUUM
PACING (SELF-PACED-EXTERNALLY PACED) CONTINUUM
DIFFICULTY (SIMPLE-COMPLEX) CONTINUUM
ORGANISATIONAL (LOW-HIGH) CONTINUUMTHE SIX CONTINUA
This classification examines the precision of the movement.
Gross skills:involve large muscle groups with little precision.
Fine skills: involve small muscle groups and intricate movements. They usually involve accuracy and hand-eye coordination.
Running wrist/finger action of
Swimming a spin bowl in cricket
Open skills: These skills are affected by the environment and have to be adapted to suit the situation. They are predominantly perceptual and involve decision making. and are usually externally paced.
Closed skills: are not affected by the environment and are always performed in the same way. They follow a set technical model and are usually self-paced.
A chest pass in a vault in
Discrete skills: have a clear beginning and end.
Serial skills: have a number of discrete elements that are put together in a definite order to make a movement or sequence
Continuous skills: have no definite beginning or end. The the end of one cycle of the movement is the start of the next.
Discrete Serial Continuous
A catch Triple jump Cycling
A penalty kick Trampoline sequence Swimming
Self-paced skills: the performer decides when to start the movement and the speed at which it is carried out. These are often closed skills.
Externally paced skills: The control of the skill is determined by the environment, such as a starting gun, opponents or the weather. They are often open skills and involve reacting to the situation.
Self-paced Externally paced
High jump Receiving a pass in hockey
Serving in badminton Windsurfing
Simple skills: have little information to be processed, few decisions to be made, few sub-routines in which the speed and timing are not critical.
Simple skills may still be difficult to learn or perform!
Complex skills: have a high perceptual load and many decisions need to be made. The skill will have many sub-routines where speed and timing are critical and will involve feedback.
Sprinting Tennis serve
Swimming Volleyball smash
Low organisation skills: are made up of sub-routines that can easily be separated, practiced by themselves and then put back into the whole skill.
High organisation skills: in these the sub-routines are very closely linked together and difficult to separate without disrupting the skill. Highly organised skills are usually practiced as a whole.
Swimming stokes Cartwheel
Trampoline sequence Golf swing