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K +. The Odditory System . AIR. amplification. FLUID. Harry Hair-Cell: Official Cochlea Mascot. Be careful, the frequency tuning isn’t linear!. Inner hair cells. Each tuned to a ‘best’ frequency. Outer hair cells. Provide ‘frequency specific’ amplification. Basilar Membrane.

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K+

The Odditory System

AIR

amplification

FLUID

Harry Hair-Cell: Official Cochlea Mascot


Slide2 l.jpg

Be careful, the frequency tuning isn’t linear!

Inner hair cells.

Each tuned to a ‘best’ frequency.

Outer hair cells.

Provide ‘frequency specific’ amplification.

Basilar Membrane


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Frequency Spectrogram

4

Flute

3

kHz

2

1

0

Time


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Frequency Spectrogram

4

Trumpet

3

kHz

2

1

0

Time


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Frequency Spectrogram

Drum

4

3

kHz

2

1

0

Time


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To hair cell

From sound wave




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The Cochlea is amplification.Fluid-Filled

Ever Listened to Someone Talk Underwater?

You Are Right Now!


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33 mm amplification.

‘Place’ Theory of Frequency Encoding

  • Inner hair cells encode frequencies by Fourier Analysis

    • We’ll deal with Outer Hair Cells in a minute

  • Basilar Membrane dimensions are the key

  • narrowtowide

  • High Freq at base, Low Freq at apex


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High Frequencies amplification.

A row of tiny, frequency-tuned microphones

Low Frequencies


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High Frequencies amplification.

Low Frequencies


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Cross- amplification.

Section View

Oval window

Round

window


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The amplification.World’s Smallest Microphone


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Tugging on tip links opens K amplification.+ channels


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Cilia Attached to amplification.

Tectorial Membrane

Outer Hair Cells

and the Cochlear Amplifier


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View from Above amplification.

Cross-

Section View

Outer Hair Cells act as ‘frequency specific’ amplifiers, like an ‘equalizer’ on your stereo


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K amplification.+

K+

Outer Hair Cells

and the Cochlear Amplifier

Amplifier ‘on’

Amplifier ‘off’


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How does a ‘Cochlear amplification.

Implant’ work?


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Right Temporal Cortex amplification.

Primary Auditory Cortex

1

2

3

4

5

6

TONOTOPIC

(it’s a map of the basilar membrane!)

Low

Hi

First we break it down . . .

Left Cochlea

(basilar membrane)


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“Feature Detectors” amplification.

cells that respond to

complex auditory stimuli!

1

2

3

4

5

6

Right Temporal Cortex

Secondary Auditory Cortex

Then we put it back together!

Note: this is a hypothetical model

1

2

3

4

5

6

Right Temporal Cortex

Primary Auditory Cortex

Low

Hi

TONOTOPIC

(it’s a map of the basilar membrane!)


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The amplification.McGurk Effect

  • ‘Hearing’ with your eyes. . .

  • Generate ambiguous stimulus, with conflicting auditory and visual information

  • ‘Who’ are you going to believe?


Sound localization l.jpg
Sound Localization amplification.

  • Doppler Shift (monaural)

  • Interaural intensity difference (Hi only)

  • Interaural time delay

  • Interaural phase difference


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Primary amplification.

Motor Cortex

Primary

Sensory Cortex

Rat

CNS

Motor output

Sensory input

Telencephalon

WHAT?

Thalamus

relay, feedback

Midbrain

WHERE?

Spinal Cord

reflexes, input, output

GENERAL Overview of Sensory System Organization


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Barn Owl amplification.

crooked ears detect the ‘y’ axis


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The speed of the neural impulse is a constant value amplification.

E

A

B

C

D

Summation of inputs is key


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Sound Source amplification.

in Front

L R

E

A

B

C

D

Summation of inputs is key


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Sound Source amplification.

on

Right side

L R

E

A

B

C

D

Summation of inputs is key


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