The Metadata Landscape for Digital Video
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The Metadata Landscape for Digital Video. Grace Agnew August 1, 2005 National Library of Medicine. Definition of Metadata. Data about Data Data that describes, defines or manages data. “ Pure” metadata has meaning only in relation to the primary data that is being described.

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Oais information model

The Metadata Landscape for Digital Video

Grace Agnew

August 1, 2005

National Library of Medicine


Oais information model

Definition of Metadata

  • Data about Data

  • Data that describes, defines or manages data

“Pure” metadata has meaning only in relation to the primary data that is being described.


Oais information model

METADATA MAY BE:

  • auto-generated

  • automatically harvested from the resource

  • human-created

  • end user

  • metadata creator/manager

  • computer application/program

AUDIENCE MAY BE:


Oais information model

  • Data Model:

  • Abstract characterization or “World View” of the data:

    • -- relationships between objects in the model

    • -- “living” data—events occur in the lifecycle of each object in the model

    • --context independent—so that any context can be supported


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ORGANIZATION’S INFORMATION MODEL

ENTITIES

Metadata - Educational Objects - Metadata Creators - Users

ATTRIBUTES

Identify, Define Entities

RELATIONSHIPS

One to one; One to Many ; Parent, child, sibling ; Inheritance

MODEL

Relationships between Entities within a Domain


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The Structure of Information (IFLA)

Work

Distinct intellectual or

artistic creation

Intellectual or artistic realization of a work (“interpretation”)

Expression

Expression

Physical manifestation of an expression. May differ in physical format, but not in content or interpretation

Manifestation

Manifestation

Manifestation

Unique physical

instance of a manifestation.

Item


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WORK

A

B

S

T

R

A

C

T

I

O

N

GONE WITH THE WIND

Intellectual / artistic content

EXPRESSION

Novel

Script

Movie

Interpretation

70 MM Film

MANIFESTATION

Paper

Physical recording of content

35 MM Film

PDF

DVD

HTML

MPEG2

ITEM

Copy in Blockbuster,

Atlanta, GA

Single physical representation of a recording

24 Reels of film, MGM Archive


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OAIS INFORMATION MODEL

P

r

o

d

u

c

e

r

C

O

N

S

U

M

E

R

Descriptive Info

DI

DI

DIP

SIP

SIP

Ingest

Access/

Dissemination

AIP

AIP

Archival Storage

OAIS - Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System

From: CCSDS 650.0-R-1: Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS). Red Book. Issue 1. May 1999.

PDF.Available at: http://ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/isoas/overview.html


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End - to - End Metadata Implementation

Record Structure

Database Population

Data Element Registration

Data Model

Data interchange

(other repositories)

Repository

Design

Dissemination to Users


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Inside the Digital Information Repository

Persistent Objects:

Manage objects through changes to: hardware, software, players, search&retrieval systems, etc.

Persistent Metadata:

Manage metadata through schema and data element versioning changes, new metadata formats, I&R changes, hardware & database migrations.


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  • Key Issue for Preservation

  • Authenticity

-- integrity “digital document must be whole and undisturbed”

--provenance – must be tightly associated with its creator and act of creation

In the analog space

Object in hand is compared with a conceptual (“canonical”) historical version

Gladney and Bennett. What do we mean by authentic? http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july03/gladney/07gladney.html


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  • Authenticity

  • In the digital space

  • -- Fidelity to the source artifact

  • -- Identical (true/false) to the digital

  • canonical master

  • --accompanied by a “true” provenance

  • statement

  • --Proof: digital signature verifying that canonical object is unchanged. Digital audit trail documenting provenance and any changes to artifact or chain of provenance


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Administrative metadata:

provenance, fixity, context, reference, and lifecycle management. Rights MD may be a subset.

Technical Metadata:

physical characteristics of the resource. Used to manage digital preservation and display of resource. May be a subset of Administrative MD. Also called Preservation Metadata

Descriptive Metadata:

- information to discover, identify, select and obtain the resource

Metadata Managing the Resource


Oais information model

Structural metadata:

- Information about the structured relationship between components of a complex object. May be a subset of Administrative MD.

Meta metadata:

metadata that describes and manages the metadata record. Can add “intelligence” to metadata.

Metadata Managing the Resource

Repository design concatenates all types of metadata to support preservation and access to objects in the repository


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METADATA SCHEMA COMPONENTS

  • Data Element - Atomic Unit of Meaning- Community Defined

  • Attribute - Refines, Extends, Interprets data element

  • Value - Information unique to each data element instance

  • Constraint - Order imposed on data element expression for consistency; semantic viability

  • Label - contextual instance of data element name. “How the data element displays on the web for the end user.”


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OAIS – Preservation and Access

File Encoding and Transport

  • METS: Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard

  • XML document format for encoding metadata for resource description and management.

  • “wrapper” that concatenates digital object(s) in multiple formats, metadata, a structure map documenting the organization of the digital object(s), as well as behaviors that act upon digital object(s)

  • standardized transmission of METS package between repositories and applications


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METS:

Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard

METS Document has seven major sections:

METS Header: minimal descriptive metadata about the METS document itself

Descriptive Metadata: metadata describing the digital object, to enable discovery and evaluation.

Administrative Metadata: metadata about the creation, use and provenance of the digital object(s). Includes four subtypes: technical, source, rights and digital provenance metadata


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METS:

Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard

File Section: Includes one or more <fileGrp> elements, to group together related files, such as the different digital manifestations of a file, e.g.,the uncompressed digital master, mpeg4 and Quicktime access files, for a video title.

Structural Map: Outlines hierarchical structure of a digital object and links the elements of that structure to relevant content files and metadata


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METS:

Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard

Structural Links: Contains a single element, <smLink>. Used to record the existence of hyperlinks between items within the structural map.

Behavior: Used to associate executable behaviors with content within the METS document. For example, a behavior could automatically launch a video player application when a digital video file is selected for display.


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FEDORA

  • Background:

  • “Flexible, Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture”

  • Developed by Cornell University and University of Virginia via a Mellon Foundation Grant.

  • Utilizes METS (v 2.0 – FOXML (Interoperable with METS)

  • http://www.fedora.info/


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  • PREMIS Data Dictionary

  • Sponsored by OCLC and RLG

  • Defines a “core” set of preservation metadata elements

  • Provides a data dictionary supporting the preservation of digital information


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PREMIS Data Model

Intellectual

Entities

Rights

Agents

Objects

Events

http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/pmwg/


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MPEG-21 Multimedia Framework

  • Transparent management and use of digital multimedia resources, from creation through consumption.

  • Key concept is the Digital Item Declaration, which includes structure, resources and metadata bundled in the item.

  • Repository architecture—LANL’s aDORe—modular digital object repository architecture modeled on MPEG21.

  • http://public.lanl.gov/herbertv/papers/aDORe_20050128_submission.pdf


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MXF: Multimedia Exchange Format`

  • “Open file format targeted at the interchange of audiovisual material, with associated data and metadata.”

  • Intended to support file interoperability between content creation devices, servers and workstations. Supports integration of file-based and streaming resource formats.

  • Maintains the “documentation chain” for metadata about audiovisual essences throughout the resource lifecycle—creation, broadcast, storage, re-use


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MXF: Multimedia Exchange Format

Example: Video footage of hurricane activity in the field has automatic GPS, date/time and duration capture as captions on the footage. MXF can maintain the essence and the metadata captured simultaneously by the camera for use in production, archiving and reuse, without the need to “recatalog” the information.

Example: Footage of jaguar hunting in Brazil is captioned in the field, transferred with captions to production facility, where it is packaged into a program, “The Vanishing Rainforest.” Footage is licensed to a travelog production company. Footage of jaguar on the DVD, “This is Brazil” has online attribution to “The Vanishing Rainforest,” from metadata added in production, as well as attribution to the the field cinematographer, location, date and time of capture, from the original captions, with no recreation of metadata.


Oais information model

MXF: Multimedia Exchange Format

Header

partition

pack

Header

metadata

Essence Container

Footer

partition

pack

File Body

File Header

Every item in MXF File is KLV (Key Length Value) encoded—identified by a unique 16-byte key and by its length. Anything that is not understood or needed (unrecognized keys) can be ignored and skipped over

File Footer


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MXF: Multimedia Exchange Format

  • Header Metadata:

  • Metadata (DMS-1 or other schema)

  • Timing and synchronization parameters

  • Synchronization and Description of the Essence through three packages:

  • Material Package: Output timeline of the file (tracks and sequence)

  • File Package: the essence itself

  • Source Package: Derivation of the essence (“source film stock” descriptions, etc.


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DESCRIPTIVE METADATA SCHEMAS

Dublin Core

Every element is optional, repeatable, with rules for format and values

From “Description of Dublin Core Elements”

http://purl.oclc.org/metadata/dublin_core_elements


Dublin core

Provides a great deal of flexibility.

Easy to learn.

Ensures interoperability with other schemes.

Good transport protocol when expressed as XML

DUBLIN CORE

+

  • Lacks support for multiple formats

  • Lacks support for seriality

  • Technical description (formats, containers, extent, etc.) is weak and not standardized.

-


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PBCore

Intended to address description, preservation and access needs of television, radio, and associated web activities.

Based on Dublin Core—qualifies and expands the 15 Dublin Core data elements.

58 Data Elements (30 mandatory)

V 1.0 available free of charge for use, via the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

Maps readily to other schema (Dublin Core, MPEG-7, MODS, etc.)


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PBCore


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PBCore

  • Data elements address descriptive and technical metadata for access and management

  • Simple “linear” data model is easy to apply

  • Like Dublin Core, does not address issue of “multiple manifestations” (Although both can be used within METS to address this issue).


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PBCore – “Qualified” Dublin Core for DV

<FormatFileSize>296 MB </FormatFilesize>

<FormatImageFrameRate>30 fps</FormatImageFrameRate>

<format>296 MB</format>

<format>30 fps</format>

DC “Dumb Down”


Oais information model

Synchronization between content and description

Textual indexing: Creation information, subjects, concepts, media profiles.

Non-textual indexing - melody and speech recognition, color, shape, scene changes, etc.

Textual format/Binary Format completely equivalent. You can use any functionality in textual or nontextual form.

MPEG-7: Multimedia Content Description Interface


Oais information model

MPEG-7: Multimedia Content Description Interface

  • Does not support description of analog or textual resources

  • High-level textual description of component parts (“table of contents”) does not exist.

  • Some duplication of descriptive information across MPEG7 descriptive schemes

  • Documentation, examples and widespread adoption as a descriptive metadata standard is weak.


Oais information model

MPEG-7


Mpeg 7 content description low level audio visual descriptors

Video segments

Still regions

  • Color

  • Shape

  • Position

  • Texture

  • Color

  • Camera motion

  • Motion activity

  • Mosaic

Moving regions

Audio segments

  • Color

  • Motion trajectory

  • Parametric motion

  • Spatio-temporal shape

  • Spoken content

  • Spectral characterization

  • Music: timbre, melody

MPEG-7 Content Description:Low level Audio Visual descriptors


Mpeg 7 description tools

MPEG-7 Description Tools

Description Schemes (structure) and Descriptors (features)


Oais information model

Dublin Core vs. MPEG7 – The Challenges

  • MPEG7 is a structured, hierarchical schema.

    • “Work” described in CreationInformation DS

    • Manifestation/Item described in MediaInformation and UsageInformation DSs

  • Dublin Core is a “flat” schema that mixes “work” or intellectual content with single manifestation/item description

  • (“1:1 principle”)


Oais information model

MANIFESTATION in DC and MPEG-7

CREATOR

TITLE

CreationInformation

SUBJECT

DATE

MediaProfile

UsageAvailability

MediaProfile

UsageAvailability

IDENTIFIER

IDENTIFIER

FORMAT

FORMAT

MediaInstance

RIGHTS

RIGHTS


Oais information model

MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema

  • XML representation of MARC21 data, to enable seamless transfer of MARC data to XML.

  • Enables both original description of digital and analog resources and mapping of legacy metadata in MARC to MODS

  • MODS is represented in application profiles for METS Descriptive MD and OAI-PMH for data sharing and transport


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MXF DMS-1

Material Exchange Format – Descriptive Metadata Scheme-1 (SMPTE 380M-2004)

  • Utilizes SMPTE RP 210 –Metadata Dictionary Registry of Metadata Element Descriptions

  • Data model and core rules are taken from AAF, so that DMS-1 can be seen as an Application of AAF.

  • Utilizes a collection of descriptive metadata frameworks.

  • Supports migration of DM from one MXF file to another when essence is migrated or reused.


Oais information model

MXF DMS-1

  • Frameworks: “grouping of related descriptive metadata properties and sets, which describe the contents of an MXF file body.”

  • Production framework: “provide[s] identification and ownership details of the audio-visual content in the file body.” “Applies to the complete input or output of the MXF file as a whole.”

  • Clip framework: “provide[s] capture and creation information about the individual “audio-visual” clips in the file body. “A ‘clip’ is a continuous essence element, or essence element interleave, in the essence container.


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MXF DMS-1

  • Scene framework: “describe[s] actions and events within individual scenes of the aufio-visual content of the file body.” “Scene is an editorial concept and describes a continuous section of content in an MXF file.”


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MXF DMS-1

Production framework

Metadata Server Locator

Publication

Event

Titles

Captions Description

Annotation

Identification

Classification

Group Relationship

Annotation

Cue Words

Branding

Setting/Period

Related Material Locator

Award

Contract

Participant

Picture Format

Rights

Project


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MXF DMS-1

Name-value

Clip framework

Metadata Server Locator

Classification

Annotation

Titles

Cue Words

Related Material Locator

Scripting

Captions Description

Shot

Picture Format

Scripting Locator

Processing

Contract

Device Parameters

Project

Key Point

Participant

Cue Words

Name-value

Rights


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Name-Value

MXF DMS-1

Scene framework

Metadata Server Locator

Classification

Titles

Cue Words

Annotation

Setting period

Related Material Locator

Shot

Participant

Contacts List

Key Point

Cue Words


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MXF DMS-1

Participant

Address

Person

Name-value

Organization

Communications

Name-value

Location


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Concatenate moving images for preservation and access through:

  • Union Catalog

  • Archive Directory

  • Education and Outreach Space

  • Cataloging Utility

  • Dynamic, contextual portals


Mic organization directory

Contact information, home page URL, logo

Collection descriptions

Preservation activities

Cataloging activities

How to obtain materials

Administrative information

Shibboleth Authentication/Authorization

MIC Organization Directory


Mic organization directory1

Intersects with the Union Catalog for:

MIC Organization Directory

  • pre-selection for union catalog searches

  • provide information about the organization, particularly obtaining resources, audience served, location, etc.

Union Catalog

Org Directory

OrgID


Mic portals

Resource and organization descriptions specific to community

PortalID in both Org Directory and Union Catalog retrieves portal-specific information

MIC PORTALS

Union Catalog

Org Directory

PortalID


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