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New Media Technologies: Communication Theories. COM 300 Kathy E. Gill 3 April 2007. Agenda. Review Reading Assignment Questions Missing! Posts Missing! Communication Theories More “ New Media ” Discussion Multi-Media: phones. New media (recapped).

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New Media Technologies: Communication Theories

COM 300

Kathy E. Gill

3 April 2007


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Agenda

  • Review Reading Assignment

    • Questions Missing!

    • Posts Missing!

  • Communication Theories

    • More “New Media” Discussion

    • Multi-Media: phones


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New media (recapped)

  • Some definitions focus on computer technology, others focus on interactivity

  • Differences:

    • Audiences not heterogeneous

    • Control shifts from communicator to audience


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Communication

  • A process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach mutual understanding (Rogers, 1995).


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Mediated communication

  • What is it?

    • d. mediated. (adj) acting or brought about through an intervening agent; (v) to be in the middle

  • Why would we study it?

    • We live in an ever-increasingly mediated world


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Part one : medium

  • A go-between/intermediary in the communication binding the sender and receive

    • Considers symbolic and cognitive theories of the psychology of representation

    • Considers theories of meaning in signs and symbols (semiotics)


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Part two : mass media (1/2)

  • Mass communication characteristics:

    • Directed towards a large, heterogeneous audience

    • Messages are transmitted publicly, are transient in nature, and are timed to reach all simultaneously

    • Communicator works for an organization

      Charles Wright, 1959, from Communication Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses in the Mass Media, 1988, p7


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Part two : mass media (2/2)

  • Mass media communication traditionally encompasses these channels

    • Newspapers, magazines (print technologies)

    • TV, radio (electronic technologies)

  • Note: “news” v “ads”


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Channel

  • The physical/technical transmission as well as any device needed for encoding/decoding

  • May encompass advertising channels (direct mail) or news (TV)

  • One-to-many, one-way channel is typical


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So, what is new?

  • Technologically?

  • Socially?

    Your thoughts, based on readings?

  • Three BIG things:


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Concept of scarcity

  • Gone!

  • Bits can be shared; atoms cannot

  • Implications?

    • How does this relate to Bush’s musings about Memex?

    • Does it make it easier or harder to “remediate”? Why?


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Constraint of time

  • Gone!

  • Time-shifting (Tivo, podcasting, 24x7 tech support via the web … what else?)

    • How do you think that the speed in which we now communicate (e-mail, mobile phones, etc.) has affected our communication?


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Constraint of space

  • Geographical barriers: Gone!

  • Internet technology lets us “space shift” like we “time shift” – (almost) seamlessly

    • There are environmental benefits from the advancement of technology, specifically from computers. If in the future, all of academia (from grade school & beyond) required only computer-based work, what would your response be to the change? Why?


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End Point - Tuesday

  • We’ll pick up here on Thursday

  • Multi-media: phones

  • Lab:

    • Configure time (-8 GMT)

    • Configure comments (require only e-mail address, name)

    • Create com300 “page”


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New channels

  • WWW

  • E-mail

  • Videoconferencing

  • MP3

  • Electronic publishing

  • Mobile telephony

    What do they have in common?


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Computer Mediated Communication (1/2)

  • Desktop computers used as tools to influence human cognition and convey messages among people (focuses on the technology, older definition)

  • Any form of communication between two or more individuals who interact and/or influence each other using social software on separate computers linked by a network (focuses on the people)


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CMC (2/2)

  • CMC software has two categories: asynchronous and synchronous (Smith, 1994).

    http://www.edb.utexas.edu/csclstudent/kim/text/ASCmC.html


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Synchronous

  • Two or more group members have real-time (simultaneous) communication

  • Instant Messenging can be synchronous

  • Face-to-face meetings; video conference; other?


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Asynchronous

  • Allows group members to work individually and “alone”

  • Provides time/space flexibility

  • E-mail, BBs

  • Example: virtual teams


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Virtual Teams

  • Types

    • Temporary (no common history or future)

    • Permanent (common history and future)

  • Forms of Interaction

    • Face-to-face (meetings, formal or informal)

    • Electronically-mediated (phone, CMC, videoconference)

  • Context

    • Culture and geography may be similar or different


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CMC/Web Characteristics (1/2)

  • Hardware independent

  • Software independent

    • IM Not Here Yet, But Close (Google)

  • Open standards

  • Information sharing

  • “Give back” (contribute) to the community


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CMC/Web Characteristics (2/2)

  • A blend of characteristics from “old” media

    • Print

    • Radio

    • Film

    • TV


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Print Characteristics

  • Abstract

  • Captive audience

  • Fixed

  • Linear

  • Primarily verbal

  • Reader controls pace


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Radio Characteristics

  • Auditory

  • Creator controls pace

  • Dynamic

  • Linear

  • “Live” — happening in real time

  • Transient audience


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TV Characteristics

  • Animated

  • Creator controls pace

  • Dynamic

  • Linear

  • “Live” — may be happening now

  • Primarily visual

  • Transient audience


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Film Characteristics

  • Animated

  • Captive audience

  • Creator controls pace

  • Fixed

  • Linear

  • Primarily visual


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Web Characteristics

  • Dynamic

  • “Live” (maybe)

  • Multi-media (visual, auditory)

  • Transient audience

  • Typically nonlinear

  • User controls pace and direction


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Mass audience no longer

  • From broadcast to narrowcast

  • Time-shifting

  • Accelerates a move foreshadowed by niche publishing


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Summary

  • Mediated Communication is …

  • Two types are …

  • Three characteristics of new media and their impacts …


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Resources

  • Effects of Four CMC Channels on Trust

  • Glossary of Internet Terms

  • JCMC


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