Macronutrients in Pregnancy 2008. Carbohydrate Protein Lipids. 2002 DRI for Carbohydrate. DRIs for carbohydrate based on brain glucose utilization RDA for adults and children = 130 g/day Median intake ~: Men: 200-330 g/day Women: 180-230 g/day. 2002 DRI for Carbohydrate in Pregnancy.
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Macronutrients in Pregnancy2008
CV: coefficient of variation (used when insufficient data to determine standard deviation)
EAR: Estimated Average Requirement
The dietary glycemic index during pregnancy: influence on infant birth weight, fetal growth, and biomarkers of carbohydrate metabolismScholl et al, Am J Epi, 2004)
Reference woman is 57 kg
Essential and LCPUFA
Innis. J Peds. 2003
Arterburn et al, Am J Clin Nutr, 2006
Innis. J Peds. 2003
Marine oil, and other prostaglandin precursor, supplementation for pregnancy uncomplicated by pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction,(Cochran Collaboration, 2006)
“…the brain case of this little one-year-old fellow is nearly the same size as the mother’s. What that tells you is that the priority of human development is the brain; it’s not the body. Look at the size of the child’s hand compared to the mother’s. We know all about this, and I’m not going to dwell on it, but the priority is unquestionably, in homo sapiens, the brain. Physiological requirement is the brain, nutritional requirement priority is the brain, and the brain is made of lipids, so we’ve got to get these lipids to make our brains.’
with access to DHA
“These considerations support strategies to effectively remove TFA from industrial sources from the diet of pregnant and lactating women, and young children, while improving dietary intakes of the n − 3 fatty acids. .”
Innis, Atherosclerosis Supplements, 2006