Lecture overview
Download
1 / 144

Lecture Overview - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Lecture Overview What is Western Europe? Impressions Why Study it? Themes and Challenges Country vs. Comparative Conflict vs. Cooperation Parliamentary vs. Presidential Integration vs. Disintegration What is Western Europe?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha

Download Presentation

Lecture Overview

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Lecture overview l.jpg
Lecture Overview

  • What is Western Europe?

  • Impressions

  • Why Study it?

  • Themes and Challenges

    • Country vs. Comparative

    • Conflict vs. Cooperation

    • Parliamentary vs. Presidential

    • Integration vs. Disintegration


What is western europe l.jpg
What is Western Europe?

  • now many former Soviet satellite states have accession agreements with the European Union

  • Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia are set to join on 1st May 2004


What is western europe3 l.jpg

Traditional definition

all countries - about 2 dozen to 30 states that were located west of the “iron curtain”

all countries of the ‘first world’ - that is, advanced industrial and often liberal democracies

Since 1990

fall of Berlin wall, decomposition of the former Soviet empire diminished the importance of the traditional distinction b/w East and West Europe

What is Western Europe?


Defining western europe l.jpg
Defining Western Europe

  • For now, though, it makes some sense to adhere to the traditional definition of Western Europe

    • the common experience with capitalist development

    • in most cases, the longer experience with liberal democratic institutions


What is western europe5 l.jpg
What is Western Europe?

  • - two dozen countries and city states

    • counting Andorra, Lichenstein, Vatican City, San Marino

    • some ‘outside’ the geography of Western Europe

      • (egs Cyprus, Iceland, Finland, Greece)


Democracies but l.jpg
Democracies, but…

  • those states in Europe which did not come under Soviet control/influence

    • first world states

    • some dictatorships until very recently (Portugal until 1974; Spain until 1975-77; Greece until 1975)


Why study western europe l.jpg
Why Study Western Europe?

  • Three broad reasons:

    • cultural/philosophical significance of the region over history

    • geopolitics - esp. during Cold War

      • Europe a battleground for Superpower confrontation

  • comparative political laboratory

    • despite shared heritage, geography

    • wide variations in political conditions and institutional structures


Main variations in political regimes l.jpg
Main variations in Political Regimes

  • Countries fall into three broad types based on role of political authority in the economy:

    • a) pluralist

      • e.g., UK and the EU

      • State involvement primarily via regulation

  • b) étatist (‘statist’)

    • More interventionist – industrial policy; state ownership & control

    • e.g., France and to a much lesser extent Italy

  • c) democratic corporatist

    • e.g., Sweden and to a more limited extent Germany


  • Themes and challenges l.jpg
    Themes and Challenges

    • Country versus Comparative approach

      • integral nature of the components of the political systems

      • appreciate the evolution of political life and institutions, and the historical rootedness of contemporary practices

      • common framework of text facilitates comparison across systems


    Themes and challenges13 l.jpg
    Themes and Challenges

    • Conflict versus Cooperation in West Europe

      • a troubled continent

        • two world wars in the past 100 years

        • battleground during Cold War


    A common future l.jpg
    A Common Future?

    • Emergent supranationalism in EU

      • broadening from original 6 states (BENELUX, Italy, France, West Germany) in 1957 to 15 member states in 1995

      • 13 more states lined up for membership, with prospects of more to come!


    Themes and challenges15 l.jpg
    Themes and Challenges

    • Parliamentary versus Presidential Systems

      • most European states are parliamentary democracies

        • A fusion of executive & legislative power

      • France, however, an interesting ‘hybrid’ system

      • encourage you to make comparisons with the more familiar Presidential model as epitomized by the US

        • Powers separated w/ checks & balances

      • do different configurations of executive/legislative relations matter?


    Themes and challenges16 l.jpg
    Themes and Challenges

    • Integrationversus Disintegration

      • some see it as paradoxical that West European state sovereignty being simultaneously eroded from above (EU) and below (regional autonomist movements)

      • UK

        • Scottish and Welsh parliaments; Northern Ireland’s Assembly

    • France

      • Breton, Basque, Corsican separatist movements

  • Italy

    • Lombardy League, etc.

  • Spain

    • Catalan & Basque nationalism


  • Hancock et al 2003 l.jpg
    Hancock et al. (2003)

    Third edition

    Country – by – country organization (and EU)

    Only materials on countries covered included on exams

    You are not responsible for materials on Sweden & Russia in the text


    Second lecture overview l.jpg
    Second Lecture Overview

    • Themes and Challenges in Study of Western Europe

      • Country vs. Comparative

      • Conflict vs. Cooperation

      • Parliamentary vs. Presidential

      • Integration vs. Disintegration

  • State-Building in Western Europe

  • The United Kingdom

    • State-building

    • The Unwritten Constitution

      • Sources of constitution

      • Parliamentary supremacy


  • Main variations in political regimes19 l.jpg
    Main variations in Political Regimes

    • Countries fall into three broad types based on role of political authority in the economy:

      • a) pluralist

        • e.g., UK and the EU

        • State involvement primarily via regulation

    • b) étatist (‘statist’)

      • More interventionist – industrial policy; state ownership & control

      • e.g., France and to a much lesser extent Italy

      • “dirigisme” – “state led” development

  • c) democratic corporatist

    • e.g., Sweden and to a more limited extent Germany


  • Themes and challenges20 l.jpg
    Themes and Challenges

    • Conflict versus Cooperation in West Europe

      • a troubled continent

        • two world wars in the past 100 years

        • battleground during Cold War


    A common future21 l.jpg
    A Common Future?

    • Emergent supra-nationalism in EU

      • broadening from original 6 states (BENELUX, Italy, France, West Germany) in 1957 to 15 member states in 1995

      • 13 more states lined up for membership, with prospects of more to come!


    Themes and challenges22 l.jpg
    Themes and Challenges

    • Parliamentary versus Presidential Systems

      • most European states are parliamentary democracies

        • A fusion of executive & legislative power

      • France, however, an interesting ‘hybrid’ system

      • encourage you to make comparisons with the more familiar Presidential model as epitomized by the US

        • Powers separated w/ checks & balances

      • do different configurations of executive/legislative relations matter?


    Themes and challenges23 l.jpg
    Themes and Challenges

    • Integration versus Disintegration

      • some see it as paradoxical that West European state sovereignty being simultaneously eroded from above (EU) and below (regional autonomist movements)

      • UK

        • Scottish and Welsh parliaments; Northern Ireland’s Assembly

    • France

      • Breton, Basque, Corsican separatist movements

  • Italy

    • Lombardy League, etc.

  • Spain

    • Catalan & Basque nationalism


  • Emergence of states in europe l.jpg
    Emergence of States in Europe

    • Geopolitical map of Europe made and remade continuously over past 2000 years

      • Empires

        • Egs., Rome; Austria-Hungary; Napoleon

    • Mini-states/principalities

    • “Modern” sovereign territorial state normally dated from Treaty of Westphalia, 1648


    The state building process l.jpg
    The State-building Process

    • State-building essentially involves consolidation of control over territory by a political force/system

      • Extraction of resources by political authorities (taxation)

      • Establishment of legitimacy against rivals (e.g., Church)

      • ‘successfully claim a monopoly of the legitimate use of force’ (Weber)

    • “War makes the state, and states make war.” (Charles Tilly)

    • Establish uniform legal codes, measurement systems that make transactions and exchange easier

      • In some cases, cultural penetration/standardization (France)

      • conducive to market-based capitalist development


    Emergence of states in europe28 l.jpg
    Emergence of States in Europe

    • Establish uniform legal codes, measurement systems that make transactions and exchange easier

      • conducive to market-based capitalist development

    • 1700-1800s emergence of nationalism to legitimize the new state formations

      • political ideology in which nations should govern themselves; the boundaries of the nation should be congruent with the boundaries of the state


    The mother of parliaments the united kingdom l.jpg
    The ‘Mother of Parliaments’ – The United Kingdom

    first country to industrialize

    Coal mining, iron & steel, railways & canals, weaving, all ushered in the Industrial Revolution

    by early 1800s, Britain the ‘workshop of the world’

    A “pattern state” (Hans Daalder)

    Gradual democratization over centuries

    Naval versus army bases of state power

    expanded as world’s leading imperial power

    by 1900, 25% of all world’s population lived under the British empire



    British state building l.jpg
    British State-building

    • England ‘unified’ under Roman occupation

      • Julius Caesar invades 55 BC

        • "All the Britons paint themselves with woad, which gives their skin a bluish color and makes them look very dreadful in battle."


    Roman britain 55bc 400ad l.jpg
    Roman Britain (55BC ~ 400AD)

    • A lasting legacy

      • Cities/Forts

      • Roads


    Anglo saxon norman england l.jpg
    Anglo-Saxon/Norman England

    • After Romans left, return to regional kingdoms

    • Core expansion out of Wessex (Hampshire)

    • Norman invasion (1066)

      • William the Conqueror


    Patterns in state building l.jpg
    Patterns in State-Building

    • United Kingdom comprised of four components

      • England & the “Celtic Fringe”

    • Each has its own history of independent statehood

    • Each has its own distinctive form of integration within the UK state


    Component parts of the uk l.jpg
    Component Parts of the UK

    • Core/Center

      • forms by gradual expansion of this core, eventually to encompass entire UK

      • Prior advantages in economy – fertile ground


    Constituent parts of the uk l.jpg
    Constituent Parts of the UK

    • Wales

      • Unified in 950; developed an elaborate governmental/legal system

      • Centuries of conflict w/ kings of England

        • 1301 – English king made eldest son “Prince of Wales”

        • Tradition continues today

      • 1536 - conquest & institutional (though not cultural) assimilation

      • First “act of union” in 1536 announced the English intention "[henceforth] . . .to utterly extirpate all and singular the sinister usage and customs differing from the same nglish laws]."


    Scotland l.jpg
    Scotland

    • Wars of independence – 13th-14th centuries

      • “Declaration of Arbroath”- 1320 - one of the earliest expressions of nationalism

      • "It is not for honour nor riches, nor glory that we fight but for liberty alone, which no true man lays down except with his life."

  • Scotland

    • 1603 – “Union of Crowns”

    • 1707 -- “Act of Union”

    • elite accommodation and considerable Scottish autonomy

    • separate Church; Bank (currency); educational system; and legal system


  • Ireland l.jpg
    Ireland

    • English armies invaded Ireland for centuries

    • Elizabeth I – Protestants sent to colonize Ulster – 1600s

    • Union -1801-1921 – integrated into UK

      • Ireland given 100 seats in Commons and 32 in Lords

    • Protestant minority, with British backing, discriminated against Catholics; spawned Irish nationalism

      • Easter 1916 uprising

  • Partition (1921)

    • Eventually 26 counties in south given independence in 1922; 6 counties in north (Ulster) remain with UK as “Northern Ireland”



  • Third lecture overview l.jpg
    Third Lecture Overview

    • British Constitutionalism

      • The Unwritten Constitution

        • Sources of constitution

        • Parliamentary supremacy


    The unwritten uk constitution l.jpg
    The Unwritten UK Constitution

    • “In England (sic) the Parliament has an acknowledged right to modify the constitution; as, therefore, the constitution may undergo perpetual changes, it does not, in reality, exist. The Parliament is at once a legislative and a constituent assembly.”

      • Alexis de Toqueville (1805)


    Sources of uk constitution l.jpg
    Sources of UK Constitution

    • Four main ones:

      • Statutory law

        • passed by Parliament in normal legislative process

        • e.g., 1679 - Act of Habeus Corpus

    • Common law

      • judicial interpretations of laws become precedents

      • ‘stare decisis’ -”let the decision stand”

  • Convention/tradition

    • e.g., that Monarchs give consent to laws

    • last royal veto in 1707

  • Works of Authority

    • academic commentaries on constitution (e.g., Wheare, Jennings)


  • Constitutional principles 1 l.jpg
    Constitutional Principles- 1

    • Bicameral parliament

      • House of Commons

      • House of Lords

  • Bills need to be approved by both houses

  • Development of “asymmetrical bicameralism”

    • House of Commons ascends; House of Lords descends in importance.


  • Parliamentary supremacy l.jpg
    Parliamentary supremacy

    • Parliamentary sovereignty (or parliamentary supremacy)

      • A.V. Dicey - 19th Century constitutional lawyer and author of several ‘works of authority’

      • “…the right to make or unmake any law whatever; and, further, that no person or body is recognized by the law of England as having a right to override or set aside legislation of Parliament.”

        • NO meaningful JUDICIAL REVIEW!

    • In reality, however, there are some checks on parliamentary power


    Constraints on parliamentary supremacy l.jpg
    Constraints on Parliamentary Supremacy

    • Norms, traditions, liberal democratic values

    • Party organizations (esp. traditional Labour Party)

    • Bureaucratic power

    • European Union law / institutions

      • emergence of ‘qualified majority voting’ (QMV) in Council of Ministers

      • European law takes precedence over domestic for all member states

  • Referenda

    • European Union membership in 1975“

    • “Devolution” in 1979 and again in 1997

  • Pro Welsh devolution poster, 1997


    Constitutional principles 2 l.jpg
    Constitutional Principles- 2

    • Constitutionalism

      • ‘rule of law’

        • judicial independence

      • government not arbitrary but follows rules

      • respect for civil rights

        • (but no written ‘Bill of Rights’)


    Charter 88 excerpt l.jpg
    Charter 88 (excerpt)

    • “You don’t have the right to a fair trial.

    • “You don’t have the right to be treated equally whatever your race, religion, or sexuality. You don’t have the right to privacy, the right to protest, or the right to an education.

    • “We’re talking about Britain.

    • “Your rights have no protection.

    • “We have no positive legal rights in this country. We only have the permission to do what the law doesn’t expressly forbid. So any government can pass laws that whittle away at fundamental rights we thought were secure.”

    • Source: http://www.gn.apc.org/charter88/politics/bill.html


    Fourth lecture overview l.jpg
    Fourth Lecture Overview

    • British Constitutionalism

      • Democratization in Britain

  • Institutions of Parliamentary Government

    • The Westminster Model

      • Dual Executive

      • House of Lords


  • 19 th century democratic transitions l.jpg
    19th Century Democratic Transitions

    • 2 routes for gradual democratization

      • Democratizing the Commons

      • Reform of the House of Lords


    Democratizing the commons electoral reform l.jpg
    Democratizing the Commons - Electoral Reform

    • Entered the 19th century dominated by wealthy individuals from rural England

      • by 1830, large cities created by the Industrial Revolution (lLeeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield, Birmingham, etc.) had NO representatives in H of C

      • “rotten boroughs” - seats in Commons for places with next to no population

        • “Old Sarum” – near Stonehenge, 2 MPs and no population!


    Extending the franchise l.jpg
    Extending the Franchise

    • Seven acts that each expanded the rights to vote and participate in political life

    • 1832 - “The Great Reform Act”

      • increased electorate’s size by about 50% by granting middle class land owners (£10 property owners) right to vote

  • 1867 & 1884 Reform Acts

    • gradual removals of property restrictions

    • each act roughly doubled the size of the electorate


  • Extending the franchise53 l.jpg
    Extending the Franchise

    • 1918 - universal suffrage for males over 21 yrs. and females over 28 yrs.

    • 1928 - eliminated the gender differential

    • 1948 - eliminated ‘university constituencies that gave graduates 2 votes, one in constituency of residence and one in university

    • 1969 - lowered voting age to 18



    Dual executive l.jpg
    Dual Executive

    • Head of State - The Monarchy

      • The “Dignified” Part of the British Constitution according to Walter Bagehot (The English Constitution, 1867)

      • Symbolic role

        • non-partisanship at the top

        • continuity/tradition

    • no real “power”

    • Bagehot argued in 1867 that Britain had become a ‘disguised republic’ and that power had passed - almost unnoticed by the public - to the efficient parts of the constitution, which in the case of the political executive means Prime Minister and Cabinet


    Bicameral parliament l.jpg
    Bicameral Parliament

    • House of Lords - “upper house”

      • power declines as Britain democratizes

        • in Bagehot’s terms, moved from the efficient to the dignified parts of the British constitution

      • Recently reformed - Fall 1999

      • attempt to increase its legitimacy and efficacy, and reduce the role of ‘hereditary peers’

      • reduce partisan advantage to Conservative party an important motivation

      • pre-2000 had been about 1,200 peers - most hereditary and large majority Conservative


    Reforming the lords l.jpg
    Reforming the Lords

    • House of Lords

      • until 1911 the Lords could veto any legislation passed by the Commons

      • as age of democracy progressed, the body’s (legitimacy declined

  • Parliament Act 1911)

    • limited Lords’ veto power

      • could now only delay financial matters for 30 days and normal non-financial legislation for 2 years

      • further limited powers in 1949

  • Recent Reforms (1999->)

    • Abolition the objective of Blair Government

    • Agreed to allow 92 seats to remain for ‘hereditary peers’ to gain Conservative support for rapid passage of reform

  • http://www.parliament.uk/panoramas/hlords.htm


    Wakeham commission recommendations 1999 l.jpg
    Wakeham Commission Recommendations (1999)

    • 550 members,

      • a minority of them elected from the regions

      • most of the rest chosen by a powerful Appointments Commission which would have massive powers to determine the make-up of the second chamber.

    • Commission would be responsible for ensuring that around 20 per cent of the new House are independent crossbenchers and that the second chamber, of which the clear majority would be unelected, should proportionately reflect votes cast at the previous general election.

    • Otherwise, let the institution evolve!



    Sixth lecture overview l.jpg
    Sixth Lecture Overview

    • Institutions of Parliamentary Government

      • The Westminster Model

        • House of Commons

        • Passage of Legislation

        • MPs Roles


    House of commons composition l.jpg
    House of Commons –Composition

    • 659 Members of Parliament (MPs)

    • each elected from electoral districts using the Single Member Plurality (SMP) electoral system

      • one member from each district

      • elected by a ‘plurality’ formula

        • winner has more votes than any other candidate

    • well-known distortion associated with SMP systems

      • more shortly on this


    Slide62 l.jpg
    MPs

    • Must win local party association’s nomination (and be acceptable to party leader)

      • Not necessary to live in your constituency (or “riding”)

    • Paid £56,358 per year (4/2003)

      • Up to a maximum of £120,000 in expenses for staff support & office, London living expenses, plus travel allowance

      • Enough for 2-3 full-time assistants, in constituency and/or London

    • Average constituency served has about 67,000 electors

    • MPs overwhelmingly “WASP”

      • Since 1918, 4,531 individuals have served as MPs

      • 252 have been women (6% of all MPs)

        • 64% of women MPs have been Labour members

      • 118 women elected in 2001 (18% of 659)


    Commons as of july 2002 2001 election l.jpg
    Commons as of July 2002(2001 election)

    Labour 410

    Conservative 164

    Liberal Democrat 53

    Scottish National Party/

    Plaid Cymru 9 (SNP 5/PC 4)

    Ulster Unionist 6

    Democratic Unionist 5

    Sinn Fein 4 (Have not taken their seats)

    Social Democratic & Labour 3

    Independent 1

    Speaker & 3 Deputies 4 (Do not normally vote)

    Total 659

    Government majority 165

    330 MPs needed to form a majority government


    Four primary functions of house of commons l.jpg
    Four Primary Functions of House of Commons

    • Educating the public

      • ‘mobilizing consent’

      • legitimation

  • Improve legislation

    • ‘policy refinement’ if not policy making

  • Recruitment of executive

  • Executive accountability

    • Question period

    • Select committees


  • Passing laws l.jpg
    Passing Laws

    • To become law, bill must pass House of Commons, House of Lords*, and receive Royal Assent

    • Party Cohesion / Party Discipline

    • Not “government by parliament” but “government through parliament”


    Legislation l.jpg
    Legislation

    • Government Bills –

      • introduced by Prime Minister or Cabinet Minister

        • about 90% pass each session!

        • Relatively few

          • average of Thatcher/Major under 50 per session

        • Very few actually ‘defeated’

        • about 10% are withdrawn by the government

  • Private Members’ Bills

    • lottery to select among all proposed

      • 20 drawn from about 400 proposed

    • debated only on about a dozen Fridays

    • very few pass

      • total of 256 passed of more than 2,000 introduced b/w 1983-2002


  • The commons legislative process l.jpg
    The Commons’ Legislative Process

    • First reading - normally by a Cabinet Minister;

      • no debate permitted; published in Hansard

  • Second reading

    • major debate on principles of proposed legislation 2-3 wks. after first reading

  • Committee stage - Standing & Select

    • all committees mirror the House in partisan composition, so government majority is assured

    • prior to 1979, a different committee established for each piece of legislation called standing committees

    • May be referred to a select committee, and if so, it will report on the bill

    • still responsible for the detailed, clause-by-clause scrutiny today

      • Amendments possible

    • under reasonably tight gov’t party control

    • new members for each committee/piece of legislation


  • Seventh lecture overview l.jpg
    Seventh Lecture Overview

    • Institutions of Parliamentary Government

      • The Westminster Model

        • Passage of Legislation

        • Adversarial Politics

        • MPs Roles


    The commons legislative process69 l.jpg
    The Commons’ Legislative Process

    • First reading - normally by a Cabinet Minister;

      • no debate permitted; published in Hansard

  • Second reading

    • major debate on principles of proposed legislation 2-3 wks. after first reading

  • Committee stage - Standing & Select

    • all committees mirror the House in partisan composition, so government majority is assured

    • prior to 1979, a different committee established for each piece of legislation called standing committees

    • May be referred to a select committee, and if so, it will report on the bill

    • still responsible for the detailed, clause-by-clause scrutiny today

      • Amendments possible

    • under reasonably tight gov’t party control

    • new members for each committee/piece of legislation


  • House of commons legislative stages cont l.jpg
    House of Commons- Legislative Stages (cont.)

    • Report stage – back to the House, further amendments considered

    • Third reading (no amendments, short debate) and vote

      • Normally, voice vote sufficient

      • Divisions – MPs file out to the lobby and are counted as they re-enter through doors marked “Aye” or “Nay”


    Budget procedures l.jpg
    Budget procedures

    • Chancellor of the Exchequer presents budget

      • An annual appraisal of the economy

      • Outline the government’s economic plan

        • Describe tax implications and changes

      • Normally, Finance Bill introduced the same day

        • Since 1968, most controversial matters in the Finance Bill taken up by a ‘committee of the whole’ (i.e., the entire H of C, with no speaker in the chair)

        • Rest sent to a (slightly larger than normal) standing committee


    Adversarial politics l.jpg
    Adversarial Politics

    • The operative principle of parliamentary systems is the ‘fusion of executive and legislative power’

      • Government leader (Prime Minister) and Executive (cabinet) sit in House of Commons

        • effective government by a majority party or coalition (Her Majesty’s Government)

        • continually opposed by a vigorous, vigilant opposition (Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition)

    • Worth noting that this is also the basis of the British legal system that we inherited


    Slide73 l.jpg

    http://www.parliamentlive.tv/

    http://www.parliament.uk/panoramas/hcomms.htm


    The speaker l.jpg
    The Speaker

    • The ‘referee’ for parliamentary procedure & debates

    • An MP

      • After 2001, will be elected by MPs

        • Successive ballots until one person has a majority

      • Impartial

        • Resign from party upon selection

        • Normally do not vote in divisions of the House, but occupant of the chair can cast the decisive ballot in the event of a tie

        • Normally runs unopposed in elections

      • Salary same as a cabinet member (£128,000 – 4/2003)


    Party discipline l.jpg
    Party Discipline

    • MPs actually told how to vote by their parties on everything

      • party whips

        • one, two, and three line ‘whips’ on the order paper

      • but ‘free votes’ or “early day motions” (EDMS)

      • have more freedom to contribute to legislation in Committee work

      • but, the Commons cannot be seen as a particularly important policy-making body

      • so, what is its role?

    http://www.stats.bris.ac.uk/%7Eguy/Research/Politics/Welcome.html


    Eighth lecture overview l.jpg
    Eighth Lecture Overview

    • Institutions of Parliamentary Government

      • The Westminster Model

        • Adversarial Politics

        • MPs Roles


    Parliamentary questions l.jpg
    Parliamentary Questions

    • 40,000 on average each year

      • About 3,000 answered

    • 2 types

      • Oral –

        • Drawn randomly from those submitted each morning

        • One hour, Mondays through Thursdays

        • MP submitting question reads it, allowed one supplemental

        • Minister answers both orally

        • Roster of departments established

        • Normally one major one and 3-4 minor ones per day

      • Prime Minister’s Questions normally at noon-12:30 Wednesdays

        • Practice began in 1961 – growth of prime ministerial power

        • Attempt to embarrass the PM in the supplementaries

      • Written

    http://www.britainusa.com/PMQs/


    Select committees l.jpg
    Select Committees

    • 1979 reforms created 14 committees, by broad subject area

      • now 18 in number

      • Eg, Agriculture, Scottish Affairs, Social Security

      • Science & Technology; Health; Foreign Affairs; etc

      • 3-6 staff members

    • they offer MPs a broader forum for overseeing the executive

      • May debate particular pieces of legislation, but not the bulk of their work

      • can call witnesses/ask for evidence

      • Organize their own inquiries


    Select committees79 l.jpg
    Select Committees

    • Limited effectiveness

      • understaffed;

      • government control remains;

      • relatively few committee reports (about 5%) get debated in Commons

        • 3 days given over to this on the Commons’ schedule

        • no formal means of ensuring their recommendations considered or acted upon

    • but Members can specialize in subject areas

      • often good for careers after the Commons


    Ninth lecture outline l.jpg
    Ninth Lecture Outline

    • MP Roles

    • Prime Minister – An Elected Dictator or ‘primus inter pares?’

      • Powers of the Prime Minister

      • Prime Ministerial Styles

      • Limits on Prime Ministerial Power

  • The Cabinet


  • Mps perceived roles l.jpg
    MPs’ Perceived Roles

    • Donald Searing, Westminster’s World, Harvard University Press, 1994

      • based on interviews with 338

        backbench MPs, 1972-73

      • not all MPs see themselves as

        doing the same kinds of things

        - Four principle self-identified

        role specializations


    Mp role specializations l.jpg
    MP Role Specializations

    • Constituency Service25%

    • “Ministerial aspirant”25%

    • Supporting/Attacking Executive40%

    • “Good Parliamentarian” 9%

    • SOURCE: Searing, Westminster’s World, Harvard Univ. Press, 1994


    What do british voters want from their mp l.jpg
    What do British voters want from their MP?

    • Survey asking people to pick most impt. MP role:

      • Ombudsman19%

      • Protect constituency26%

      • Executive oversight 5%

      • Information24%

      • Law-making (debates & votes)11%

      • All roles equally important10%


    Prime minister primus inter pares l.jpg
    Prime Minister: ‘primus inter pares’?

    • Sir Robert Walpole – 1721 – first prime minister

      • Had won confidence of both King & Parliament

    • ‘first among equals’ the traditional depiction

      • PM is still an MP

  • Extensive formal and informal powers

  • some argue that these have increased and the office has been ‘presidentialized’

    • Richard Crossman’s ‘introduction’ to Bagehot’s The English Constitution (1963)


  • Prime ministerial powers l.jpg
    Prime Ministerial Powers

    • leader of the party

      • large staff of personal advisers at Downing Street

    • selector of cabinet ministers and party leadership positions (about 80-90 parliamentary posts)

      • chairs & ‘takes the sense of’ cabinet meetings

    • provider of patronage

      • peerages; QUANGOS; etc

    • leader in parliament

      • can DISSOLVE parliament

    • International negotiator/European Council

    • highly visible public figure

      • media (esp. television) personalizes politics

      • chief campaigner during elections

    PM statement on reshuffle - 18 June 2003

    • http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/page19.asp


    R h crossman prime ministerial government l.jpg
    R.H. Crossman - Prime Ministerial Government

    • “The post-war epoch has seen the final transformation of Cabinet Government into Prime Ministerial Government…Even in Bagehot’s time it was probably a misnomer to describe the Premier as chairman and primus inter pares. His right to select his own Cabinet and dismiss them at will; his power to decide the Cabinet’s agenda and announce the decisions reached without taking a vote; his control, through the Chief Whip, over patronage - all this had already before 1867 given him near-Presidential powers. Since then, his powers have been steadily increased, first by the centralisation of the party machine under his personal rule, and secondly by the growth of a centralised bureaucracy, so vast that it could no longer be managed by a Cabinet behaving like the board of directors of an old-fashioned company.” (pp. 51-52)


    Tenth lecture outline l.jpg
    Tenth Lecture Outline

    • Prime Minister – An Elected Dictator or ‘primus inter pares?’

      • Prime Ministerial Styles

      • Limits on Prime Ministerial Power

  • The Cabinet


  • Margaret thatcher on selecting a cabinet l.jpg
    Margaret Thatcher on Selecting a Cabinet

    • “One way is to have in it people who represent all the different viewpoints within the party, within the broad [i.e. conservative) philosophy. The other way is to have in it only the people who want to go in the direction in which the PM wants to go.”

    • her choice?

      • “It must be a conviction government.”

        • (from an interview with Thatcher prior to the 1979 election)


    The road to downing street the rt hon tony blair mp l.jpg
    The Road to Downing Street:The Rt Hon Tony Blair, MP

    • born on 6 May 1953 in Edinburgh;

    • entered Parliament in June 1983 at the age of 30

      as MP for Sedgefield (Durham, in NE of England)

      • Promoted to the Treasury front bench team (1985);

        Spokesman on Trade and Industry;

      • Elected to Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Secretary

        of State for Energy (1988); Shadow Secretary of

        State for Employment (1989); Shadow Home

        Secretary (1992);

    • elected Leader of the Labour Party on 21 July 1994;

    • became Prime Minister on 2 May 1997 when the Labour Government was elected with a majority of 179. Re-elected June 2001.


    Blair on the prime minister s role l.jpg
    Blair on the Prime Minister’s Role

    • “You’re either a weak Prime Minister, in which case they’ll knock you for that, or if you appear to have a clear sense of direction, and know what you want to do, then you are a quasi-dictator. And all this President Blair rubbish, it’s absolute rubbish.”

      • Tony Blair, The Observer, 5 Sept. 1999

    • “They have got to know I’m running the show.”

      • Tony Blair, quoted in The Sunday Times, 26 April, 1988


    Limits on pm power l.jpg
    Limits on PM Power?

    • Some journalists have likened the PM to an ‘elected dictator’

    • some respects, a popular PM can resemble this

    • but,

      • can be defeated

        • in a general election

        • or by their own party (e.g., Margaret Thatcher in 1990)

    • limited by their limited amount of time


    The british cabinet origins l.jpg
    The British Cabinet-Origins

    • Arose centuries ago as advisors (Ministers) to the Crown (monarch)

      • Appointed by the Queen as “Privy Councillors”

    • Membership in Privy Council includes all members of the Cabinet, past and present, the Speaker, the leaders of all major political parties, Archbishops and various senior judges as well as other senior public figures.

      • During debates in the Commons MPs who are Privy Councillors are referred to by their colleagues as `The Right Honourable'.

      • 1832 – Reform Act emphasized that it needed to have the confidence of the House of Commons as well as the Crown

    Lord Irvine,Blair’s Lord Chancellor until June 2003


    The british cabinet basics l.jpg
    The British Cabinet- Basics

    • about 20 members of “cabinet” proper

      • most senior advisers to the PM

      • most have title of ‘Secretary of State’ and represent the largest and/or most prestigious departments (‘portfolios’) of the civil service

      • also includes ‘parliamentary secretary to the Treasury (better known as the ‘chief whip’) and the Lord Chancellor (chief adviser for law matters; a Lord); and Chancellor of the Exchequer (Treasury)

    • serve at the PM’s pleasure

      • may be ‘shuffled’ to another ‘portfolio’


    Cabinet meetings l.jpg
    Cabinet Meetings

    • Normally held Thursday mornings

    • meet in private

    • no minutes recorded; PM chairs meetings

    • decision by consensus - not by voting;

      • PM ‘takes the sense of the meeting’

    • meetings supported by Cabinet Office (secretariat)

    • sub-cabinet committees

      • coordinate cabinet activities; set priorities

    The Cabinet Room,

    No. 10 Downing Street


    The british cabinet l.jpg
    The British Cabinet

    • “…a hyphen which joins, a buckle which fastens, the legislative part of the State to the executive part of the state”

      • Bagehot, The English Constitution, 1867, p. 68


    Blair s cabinet 9 2003 l.jpg
    Blair’s Cabinet (9/2003)

    • me Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service The Rt Hon Tony Blair MP

    • Deputy Prime MinisterThe Rt Hon John Prescott MP

    • Chancellor of the Exchequer The Rt Hon Gordon Brown MPSecretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs The Rt Hon Jack Straw MP

    • Secretary of State for the Home Department The Rt Hon David Blunkett MP

    • Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs The Rt Hon Margaret Beckett MP

    • Secretary of State for Transport and Secretary

    • of State for ScotlandThe Rt Hon Alistair Darling MP

    • Secretary of State for HealthThe Rt Hon Dr John Reid MP

    • Secretary of State for Northern Ireland The Rt Hon Paul Murphy MP

    • Secretary of State for Defence The Rt Hon Geoff Hoon MP

    • Secretary of State for Work and Pensions The Rt Hon Andrew Smith MP

    • Leader of the House of Lords The Rt Hon The Lord Williams of Mostyn QC

    Secretary of State for Trade and Industry and Minister for WomenThe Rt Hon Patricia Hewitt MP

    Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport The Rt Hon Tessa Jowell MP

    Parliamentary Secretary, Treasury and Chief Whip The Rt Hon Hilary Armstrong MP

    Secretary of State for Education and SkillsThe Rt Hon Charles Clarke MP

    Chief Secretary to the Treasury The Rt Hon Paul Boateng MP

    Leader of the House of Commons, Lord Privy Seal and Secretary of State for WalesThe Rt Hon Peter Hain MP

    Minister without Portfolio and Party ChairThe Rt Hon Ian McCartney MP

    Secretary of State for International Development The Rt Hon Baroness Amos

    Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs and Lord Chancellor for the transitional periodThe Rt Hon Lord Falconer of Thoroton QC


    Sub cabinet members of government l.jpg
    Sub-Cabinet Members of Government

    • Ministers

      • occasionally some ‘without portfolio’

  • Ministers of State

    • - lower rank, not in cabinet, less important or prestigious civil service departments

  • junior ministers

    • assistants to a Minister

  • parliamentary secretaries

    • liason b/w executive and House of Commons

  • in all, PM makes b/w 80-90 governmental appointments


  • Roles of a cabinet minister l.jpg
    Roles of a Cabinet Minister

    • Head of Civil Service Department

      • often large organizations

      • about 500,000 employed in ‘central administration’ in Britain

        • not including teachers or military personnel

        • since 1979 about 260,000 civil servants transferred to agencies, ‘quangos’, local authorities, or privatized

  • Member of Parliament

    • Constituency & party pressures

  • Member of Cabinet


  • Operating principles of cabinet government l.jpg
    Operating Principles of Cabinet Government

    • Collective Responsibility

      • cabinet solidarity in public

        • underpins the cohesion of the party in the House of Commons, necessary for party discipline

      • entire cabinet resigns if the government falls

  • Individual Ministerial Responsibility

    • minister must resign if there is serious maladministration or other difficulty in her/his civil service department

    • no longer seriously applied, but minister must ‘answer’ for her/his department’s actions


  • Eleventh lecture outline l.jpg
    Eleventh Lecture Outline

    • The “SMP” Electoral System

      • Chief Characteristics

      • Strengths and Weaknesses

      • Electoral Reform?

        • The Jenkins Commission

        • Alternative Vote (plus) system


    The electoral system l.jpg
    The Electoral System

    • Electoral systems have 2 defining features

      • District Magnitude (DM)

      • Allocation Formula (AF)

    • “Single Member (DM) Plurality (AF)”

      • “first past the post”

      • SMP


    Advantages of smp system l.jpg
    Advantages of SMP System

    • Delivers ‘strong majority governments’

      • by manufacturing majorities of seats from less than majorities of votes

      • discourages minor parties - avoid splintering the legislature

  • Simple - Quick

    • most votes wins; winner known generally on election night

  • Encourages personal ties b/w MP and electorate


  • Dysfunctions of smp l.jpg
    Dysfunctions of SMP

    • Perverse results

      • on 2 occasions since 1945 (of 15 elections) party winning majority of seats won fewer votes than main rival (1951 and Feb. 1974)

  • Wasted votes

    • disincentives for minority preference holders to vote

  • Safe seat apathy

    • Sometimes disincentives for majority preference holders to vote

  • Disproportionality

    • 1997 - Labour wins 64% of seats on 43% vote

    • 2001 – Labour wins 413 seats (62.7%) on 40.7% of vote

      • (or, taking turnout rate in 2001 of 59.4% into account, only 24.1% of the eligible electorate supported Blair’s party)



  • Duverger s law l.jpg
    Duverger’s “law”

    • electoral system & party system

      • SMP

        • = two party system

          • Strong majority governments; penalties for (most) minor parties

      • Proportional Representation

        • = multiparty system


    Jenkins commission proposals l.jpg
    Jenkins Commission Proposals

    - Labour committed to referendum on electoral reform in 1993

    • After coming to power in 1997, appointed Right Honorable Roy Jenkins – former Labour cabinet minister and co-founder of the Social Democratic Party in the early 1980s – to an “independent commission on election reform

      - Reported in 1998

      -recommended a mixed system –

      • Alternative Vote (+) system

        • 80-85% elected by Alternative Vote in individual constituencies

        • 15-20% ‘top up’ Members from party lists

        • voters given 2 ballots, one for constituency and containing preference ordering of parties/candidates, one for party lists top-up candidates assigned by region


    Alternative vote systems l.jpg
    Alternative Vote systems

    • a majoritarian system.

      • Winning candidates secure the support of over half the voters in constituency.

    • Voters record preferences for all candidates on the ballot paper.

    • If no candidate receives more than half of the votes cast on the first count of first preference votes, the candidate who received the fewest first preference votes is eliminated and his/her second preferences are distributed between the other candidates.

    • This process continues until one candidate has achieved an overall majority.



    Essay tips finding a good topic l.jpg
    Essay Tips – Finding a Good Topic

    • Often the most difficult part!

    • Best to work from what you know

      • i.e., your own interests

        • What would you write on if you had to do a paper on some aspect of US politics?

          • “How effective is gun control at reducing violent crime in Europe?”

        • What country/area of Europe is of most interest?

    • Can compare political systems if you wish

      • E.g., “how threatening is the extreme right in Western Europe?”

        • “where and why is the environmental movement strongest in Western Europe?”

        • or focus on a sub-region of one or more countries

        • Or focus on one country in particular that is of particular interest


    Essay tips l.jpg
    ESSAY TIPS

    • Organization

      • Work from an outline

      • I will review an outline, but not read a draft of a paper

    • Clarity of writing/exposition

      • Proofreading essential

    • Quality of argument

      • Pose your question in the title; answer it by the time you conclude

    • Appropriateness of evidence

      • Quality/diversity of sources consulted

        • Internet alone NOT sufficient

      • Must consult scholarly journals (many available online)


    Scholarly journals dealing with europe in lockwood library l.jpg
    Scholarly Journals dealing with Europe in Lockwood Library

    • Political Studies (UK PSA)

    • British Journal of Political Science

    • European Journal of Political Research

    • Scandinavian Journal of Political Studies

    • West European Politics

    • Journal of Common Market Studies

    • Online access to MANY more

      • INGENTA - http://www.ingenta.com/

      • Article First - http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org/WebZ/FSPrefs?entityjsdetect=:javascript=true:screensize=large:sessionid=sp03sw13-38918-dkyfxxq2-2fxtp4:entitypagenum=1:0

      • JSTOR - http://www.jstor.org/

      • Lexis/Nexis - http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/


    Twelfth lecture outline l.jpg
    Twelfth Lecture Outline

    • The British Party System

      • Responsible Party Government model

      • The British Party System

        • Labour Party


    Responsible party government l.jpg
    Responsible Party Government

    • Four basic components

      • Parties pursue different programmatic goals

        • Voters offered clear policy alternatives at elections

      • Party support is related to these programs (voting behavior)

        • Not patronage; personal loyalty; charisma

      • Parties have strong grassroots presence as campaign organizations in constituencies and a core of active grassroots members

        • Opportunities for individuals to become involved in the life of the party (including policy formation)

      • Elections provide the accountability mechanism

        • Within the party  renew (or not) the mandates of leaders

        • In the party system as a whole, voters can renew mandates for popular governments, or ‘throw the rascals out’


    Responsible party government114 l.jpg
    Responsible Party Government

    • Strengths

      • Clear alternatives for voters

      • Strong governments with “policy mandates”

  • Weaknesses

    • Strong governments can be wrong

      • Can do a lot of damage in five years

    • Discontinuities in policies

      • Alternation in government can inhibit smooth and progressive evolution in policy

      • E.g.,“stop-go” pattern in economic policy in 1960s


  • Attitudes to parties l.jpg
    Attitudes to Parties

    • “Some people say that political parties are necessary to make our political system work in Britain. Others say that political parties are not needed in Britain. Using this scale where would you place yourself?”

      • Necessary143%

        • 233%

        • 318%

        • 43%

      • Not necessary52%

      • Dk/DNA1%

    From: 1997 British Election Survey


    The british party system l.jpg
    The British Party System

    • For much of the past 100 years, essentially a 2 party system

      • in the 1960s for example, the Labour and Conservative Parties combined to win over 95% of the vote at elections

      • Ideological blurring behind the post-war consensus

    • like many ‘left’ parties, Labour moved toward the center in its policies over the decades

    • Conservatives also learned to live with the ‘welfare state’ and Keynesianism (state intervention in the market)

      • by the 1950s, broad consensus on the ‘welfare state’ in Britain

      • “Butskillism” – similarities b/w Chancellors for the Exchequers for Conservatives & Labour (Butler + Gaitskill)

      • budgets of successive Labour & Conservative administrations virtually identical

      • But…


    Polarization in the party system 1979 1990 l.jpg
    Polarization in the Party System1979-1990

    • “We want a society where people are free to make choices, to make mistakes, to be generous and compassionate. This is what we mean by a moral society; not a society where the state is responsible for everything, and no one is responsible for the state.” Margaret Thatcher

      • Conservative party came to power in 1979 under Thatcher, stayed in power until 1997

        • Conservatives moved to the ideological ‘right’

      • Labour, in turn, moved to the ideological left after 1979

      • This creates some space in the center of the ideological spectrum

        • Traditional home of the Liberal Party

        • Social Democratic Party formed by former Labour moderates in early 1980s, came close to “breaking the mould” of British party politics in the 1983 election

    • Labour Liberals/SDP Conservatives

    • LEFTCENTRE RIGHT


    The labour party l.jpg
    The Labour Party

    • Founded early in 1900s as the ‘Labour Representation Committee’

      • not a socialist party; rather, aimed at getting working class individuals elected as MPs

      • an outgrowth of the trade union movement

  • breakthrough in 1918 and early 1920s

    • replaced the Liberal party as the main alternative to the Conservatives

  • the “Fabian movement” in the post-First WW period gave the party its ‘socialist’ flavor

    • Clause 4 - ‘nationalization of the means of production, communication, etc.)’


  • Labour s origins duverger l.jpg
    Labour’s Origins- Duverger

    • Labour is:

      • an ‘extraparliamentary party’

        • its origins are in the trade union movement and its attempts to enter the legislature from outside

      • a “mass party”

        • formal membership in the party, not just voters supporting it

        • two types of members

          • individual members (join through local party association)

          • members through affiliated unions

      • this combines to give Labour a strong extra-parliamentary organization


    Labour s organization l.jpg
    Labour’s Organization

    • Traditionally, four main components:

      • Annual conference (to be held in Bournemouth, Sept. 28-Oct. 2nd, 2003)

        • formally the ‘supreme’ policy body

        • this leads Robert McKenzie to argue that Labour’s party constitution is unconstitutional!

        • In reality, its decisions have NOT been regarded as binding on Labour’s MPs

      • Parliamentary Labour Party

        • elected MPs and leaders

        • the dominant decision-making unit of the party


    Labour s organization 2 l.jpg
    Labour’s Organization (2)

    • Constituency Labour Parties

      • traditional party activists

      • often ‘radical socialists’

    • National Executive Council (NEC)

      • attend to the supervision of routine party functions, coordinate various sections


    Labour s organizational dilemma l.jpg
    Labour’s “organizational dilemma”

    • “Since it could not afford, like its opponents, to maintain a large army of party workers, the Labour Party required militants - politically active socialists to do the work of organizing the constituencies. But since these militants tended to be ‘extremists’, a constitution was needed which maintained their enthusiasm by apparently creating a full party democracy while excluding them from effective power. Hence the concession in principle of sovereign power to delegates at the Annual Conference and the removal in practice of most of this sovereignty through the trade union block vote on the other hand and the complete independence of the parliamentary Labour Party on the other.”

      • Richard Crossman, quoted in Robert McKenzie, British Political Parties, 1964, p. 641


    Thirteenth lecture outline l.jpg
    Thirteenth Lecture Outline

    • The British Party System

      • Labour Party

      • Conservative Party

      • Liberals / Social Democratics  Liberal Democrats


    Paving the way for tony blair l.jpg
    Paving the Way for Tony Blair

    • 1979-1997 period difficult for Labour

      • Thatcher’s agenda through the 1980s seemed triumphant

      • following 1979 defeat of Labour, under leadership of Michael Foot the party lurched to the far left

        • Thatcher derides ‘the loony left’

      • a succession of disasterous elections

        • 1979, 1983, 1987, 1992

    • early 1990s, Neil Kinnock and John Smith tried to return the party to the center

    • Blair continues and perfects this!


    Making new labour l.jpg
    Making ‘New Labour’

    • With selection of Tony Blair to

      Labour Party leadership in 1994,

      the push to the right intensified

      • some liken Blair to Bill Clinton

        in terms of his impact in moderating

        a ‘left’ party

    • most visible manifestation

      decision to change “clause four”


    Clause four l.jpg
    Clause Four

    • 'To secure for the producers by hand or by brain the full fruits of their industry, and the most equitable distribution thereof that may be possible, upon the basis of the common ownership of the means of production and the best obtainable system of popular administration and control of each industry and service.'

      • Original ‘clause four’ – adopted 1918


    Revised clause 4 l.jpg
    Revised Clause 4

    • ‘The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. It believes that by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone, so as to create for each of us the means to realise our true potential and for all of us a community in which power, wealth and opportunity are in the hands of the many, not the few. Where the rights we enjoy reflect the duties we owe. And where we live together, freely, in a spirit of solidarity, tolerance and respect.’

      • Labour Party constitution, revised 1995


    Labour s grassroots membership l.jpg
    Labour’s Grassroots Membership

    • 19531,005,000

    • 1960 790,192

    • 1974 691,889

    • 1983 295,344

    • 1992 279,344

    • 1998 387,776

    Whiteley & Seyd, High-Intensity Participation, 2002: 10


    Labour s new decision process l.jpg
    Labour’s New Decision Process

    From Patrick Seyd, “New Labour, New Party, New Politics?” (1998)


    Blairism central principles l.jpg
    “Blairism” - Central principles

    • Economic growth

      • global competitiveness

      • government/private sector partnership

      • balanced budgets

      • Education

  • Social inclusion

  • Individual responsibility and ending welfare dependency

    • ‘tough on crime; tough on the causes of crime’

  • European involvement

    • but not in Eurozone (yet)

  • Constitutional reform


  • The third way a progress report l.jpg
    The Third Way” A Progress Report

    • Royal Commission on Electoral Reform (Jenkins)

      • reported 1998

      • (stalled)

    • Devolution to Scotland & Wales – 1998 –

      • (done)

      • English regional assemblies?

    • Lords reform - Fall 1999

      • Royal Commission on Lords Reform - (Wakeham Report, 2000)

      • (In second phase)

    • Supreme Court – 2003/04

      • (in progress)

    • Reestablishment of Northern Irish self-government

      • (in progress)

    • Labour Party

      • (reformed and more in progress)


    Conservative party l.jpg
    Conservative Party

    • A parliamentary party in Duverger’s terms

      • emerged, rather than born

      • around the 1830s as group of MPs formed regularly to support Sir Robert Peel

      • weak extra-parliamentary organization

      • leader dominated

    • traditionally supported landed (agricultural) interests, the Anglican (Church of England), and the role of tradition

    • Britain’s oldest & most successful party

      • since 1918, it has been in power alone or in coalition for 75% of the time


    Conservative ideology burkean l.jpg
    Conservative Ideology(Burkean)

    • Nationalism

    • society an ‘organism’

      • needs to be nurtured, to grow & mature

      • radical reforms that do not respect the need for continuity and integration are dangerous

  • inequalities natural

    • different endowments should give rise to different roles for individuals

  • paternalistic state

    • state should protect weakest elements of society


  • Fourteenth lecture outline l.jpg
    Fourteenth Lecture Outline

    • The British Party System

      • Conservative Party

      • Liberals / Social Democrats  Liberal Democrats

  • Patterns of Party Choice

    • Class Voting


  • Organization l.jpg
    Organization

    • Weaker organization than Labour; party leader dominates

      • prior to 1965, Leader not elected

      • the ‘old boy’ network

      • since 1965, elected by the caucus members

      • Current leader – Ian Duncan Smith

    • Annual conference

  • “1922 Committee” - Backbench opinion

    • when Conservative gov’t in power, ministers attend meetings by invitation only


  • Conservative membership l.jpg
    Conservative Membership

    • 1953- 2,805,000

    • 1974- 1,500,000

    • 1983 - 1,200,000

    • 1992- 500,000

    • 1998- 204,000

      • (Whiteley & Seyd, High Intensity Participation, 2002: 10


    Contemporary conservative party l.jpg
    Contemporary Conservative Party

    • Modern conservative principles

      • Freedom

        • Lower taxes (economic freedom)

        • Minimize ‘state interference’ (classical

          liberalism)

      • Responsibility

        • Limit welfare entitlements 1997 Campaign Poster

      • Enterprise

        • Privatization; low taxes

      • Nation

        • Strong defense

        • Anti-Europe (for many)


    Liberal party l.jpg
    Liberal Party

    • The ‘half party’ in the 2 & 1/2 party system

    • Liberal Party formed in 19th century- a ‘parliamentary party’ in Duverger’s terms

      • weak organization; leader dominated

  • until ≈ 1918, along with Conservatives, a dominant party

  • almost disappeared in 1960s, but reborn in 1970s and 1980s


  • Traditional liberal themes l.jpg
    Traditional Liberal Themes

    • Individual freedom and protection of privacy

      • small government

      • ‘the state which governs best is that which governs least’

  • federalism

    • early support of Irish home rule; devolution to Scotland & Wales

  • stand against the adversarial politics of class associated with Labour/Conservatives


  • Social democratic party l.jpg
    Social Democratic Party

    • Formed in March, 1981 by 4 disgruntled former Labour cabinet ministers

      • alarmed at the leftward drift of Labour following the 1979 election defeat

      • by end of 1981, had 27 MPs and 70,000 members

    • wanted to create a centrist alternative


    Sdp liberals liberal democrats l.jpg
    SDP+ Liberals Liberal Democrats

    • Wanted to ‘break the mould’ of class politics

    • won about 1/4 of all votes in 1983, but only got a handful of parliamentary seats.

      • Penalized by SMP electoral system

      • great supporters of electoral reform

    • Eventually joined with the Liberals to create “the “Alliance” in 1987

      • two parties formally joined to form the Liberal Democratic Party in 1988

    • Current leader – Charles Kennedy (since 1999)


    Liberal liberal democrat membership l.jpg
    Liberal/Liberal DemocratMembership

    • 1960- 243,000

    • 1974- 190,000

    • 1983- 145,258

    • 1992- 100,000

      • (Whiteley & Seyd, High Intensity Participation, (2002): p. 10


    Voting behavior l.jpg
    Voting Behavior

    • Social Class the traditional cleavage

      • Labour - ‘working class’

        • blue collar workers

    • Conservatives - ‘middle class’

      • white collar workers

  • “…class is the basis of British party politics; all else is embellishment & detail”

    • Peter Pulzer, 1966

  • Two-party system reflected the dual class nature of British society


  • The class alignment 1950 70 l.jpg
    The Class Alignment – 1950-70

    • Around 90% of voters aligned themselves with a party, mostly (around 80% with Labour or Conservatives)

    • 'Millions of British electors remain anchored to one of the parties for very long periods of time. Indeed, many electors have had the same party loyalties from the dawn of their political consciousness'

      • (D. Butler & D. Stokes, 1969, Political Change in Britain)

  • Around 65% of working class voted Labour and 80% of the middle class voted Conservative.


  • ad
  • Login