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AGRICULTURAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY. ADVANCEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL HEALTH IN THE PREVIOUS 20 YEARS -EXCERPTS FROM IICA DOCUMENTS PREPARED OR RECEIVED IN 1980-. “Mexico hopes to eliminate all mediterranean fruit flies in their country this year…”

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ADVANCEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL HEALTHIN THE PREVIOUS 20 YEARS -EXCERPTS FROM IICA DOCUMENTS PREPAREDOR RECEIVED IN 1980-

“Mexico hopes to eliminate all mediterranean fruit flies in their country this year…”

“We should not try to go into those countries (Latin America and the Caribbean) and do the job for them, but help them to help themselves, so that THEY can develop a solid animal health program”

“…I see enormous potential… provided the member nations of the OAS have visionary decision-making authorities who can see the benefit to the economy of their nations …”


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ADVANCEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL HEALTH IN THE PREVIOUS 20 YEARS -EXCERPTS OF NEEDS IDENTIFIED 20+ YEARS AGO-

  • “…Adequate budget…”

  • “…Stable infrastructure…”

  • “…Sense of urgency…”

  • “…National and international commitment…”

  • “…Training technical people…”

  • “…On-going program of surveillance…”

  • “…Establish a system of information…”

  • “…Career ladder incentives…”


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AGENT

HOST

ENVIRONMENT

TRADITIONAL FOCUS OF

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH


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TRADITIONAL FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL HEALTH

AGENT

  • Disease/pest eradication

  • Quarantine

  • Emergency response

HOST

ENVIRONMENT


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TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL HEALTH INSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • Primary production

  • Public sector driven

  • Elimination of disease/pest

  • Definable problems

  • Specific skill sets

  • Substantial technical cost

AG. PRODUCTION


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TRENDS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL HEALTH AND CHARACTERISTICSFOOD SAFETY

  • Increasing international travel and commerce.

  • Expanding influence of consumers on production.

  • Increasing competition.

  • Declining influence of agriculture in forming policy.

  • Potential disregard for scientifically based trade decisions.



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SCOPE OF AGRICULTURAL HEALTH TODAY’S REALITY? AND FOOD SAFETY


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PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SUSCEPTIBLE TO PINK MEALYBUG

El Salvador

Guatemala

Panama

Colombia

Costa Rica

Honduras

%

0

10

20

30

40

50

Source: Pink Mealybug in the Americas. IICA. 1998.


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ADDITIONAL GRAIN NEEDED TO SATISFY NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS IN LATIN AMERICAN AND THE CARIBBEAN

Tons

Years

Therefore…

Source: USDA 1999. Food security assessment.


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IT IS NECESSARY TO INCREASE BOTH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SUPPLIES

Tons

Tons

Therefore…

Source: USDA 1999. Food security assessment.


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AGRICULTURAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY HAVE TO ACHIEVE A BALANCE

  • To not put domestic production at risk.

  • To address the increasing importation requirements.

In 1999 Miami Airport intercepted 14,000 pests.

Source: USDA 2000.


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A MARKET CAN BE LOST OVERNIGHT BALANCE

Foot and Mouth Disease

Outbreak

United Kingdom

February-March, 2001

  • US$366 million/month

Source:REUTERS/PA/News/Feb 4, 2001.


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SLAUGHTER OF ANIMALS BALANCE

United Kingdom

February-March, 2001

Foot and Mouth Disease

Outbreak

  • 155,000 animals (bovines,

  • swines and ovines)

Source:PROMED 2001.


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UNDESIRED EFFECTS CAUSED BY A FOOD SAFETY CRISIS BALANCE

Cyclosporiasis

Guatemala 1998-99

2,800+ people sick

Canada and U.S.A.

ban imports

Blackberry and raspberries

Other effects:

  • Strawberries from California lose market value.

  • A new sanitary norm: “quick frozen” raspberries from Chile

Source: Promed, CDC, EID and FSNet, 1999.


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AGENTS ASSOCIATED WITH FOODBORNE DISEASES BALANCE

U.S.A., 1990-97

86,058 sick people

Source: CDC. BMN.


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COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH AND FOODBORNE DISEASES BALANCE

3,241 cases/100,000 people

US$ 462 per case

Source: CDC. BMN.


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AGRICULTURAL HEALTH IS NOT PREPARED TO FACE RE-EMERGING ZOONOSIS

In 22/34 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean

Tuberculosis

Milk

Aerosols

Milk

Aerosols

Food

Water

Source: Zoonotic Tuberculosis in Developing Countries. EID - CDC.


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AGRICULTURAL HEALTH IS NOT PREPARED TO FACE EMERGING ZOONOSIS

Nipah Virus

  • In Malasia, 1999-2000

Urine

Faeces

Saliva

Source: Promed.


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LOSSES DUE TO NIPAH VIRUS ZOONOSIS

  • In Malasia, 1999-2000

  • 83 people died in four months

  • >900,000 swines slaughtered

  • Cost: US$400 million

Source: Promed.


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TRADE AND TOURISM CHALLENGE AGRICULTURAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH ZOONOSIS

West Nile Virus

New York, 1999

19 human cases

4 dead

4,324 bird cases

57 equine cases

Source: Promed


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A ZOONOSIS CLOSES ZOONOSIS

DISNEY WORLD

Orlando 1997

Equine Encephalitis

Source: Promed 1997.


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FOOD SAFETY IS CRITICAL IN MAKING DECISIONS ON WHERE TO TRAVEL

“Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Travelers’ Advisory”

Food and waterborne diseases are the #1 cause of illness in travelers. Travelers’ diarrhea can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites, which are found throughout the region and can contaminate food or water. Infections may cause diarrhea and vomiting (E. coli, Salmonella, cholera, and parasites), fever (typhoid fever and toxoplasmosis), or liver damage (hepatitis). Make sure your food and drinking water are safe.

Source: CDC.


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INTENSIVE SWINE PRODUCTION DECREASES TOURISM TRAVEL

In North Carolina it is estimated that tourism loses US $2 billion annually

  • 2,400 farms produce

  • 52,000 tons of waste daily

Source: North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resouces.


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INTENSIVE SWINE PRODUCTION DECREASES TOURISM TRAVEL

Tourism generates

250,000 jobs

US$ 10.1 billion

Hogs generate

8,000 jobs

US$ 1.9 billion

Source: North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resouces.


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INTENSIVE SWINE PRODUCTION CONTAMINATES SUPERFICIAL AND SUBTERRANEAN AQUIFERS

In North Carolina 25% of the lagoons have leakages.

Source: North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resouces.


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INTENSIVE SWINE PRODUCTION CONTAMINATES THE ENVIRONMENT SUBTERRANEAN AQUIFERS

The bad odors decreases property values in Virginia by 20%.

Source: Environmental Interest Organization.


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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CAN ENTER AT ANY POINT IN THE AGRIFOOD CHAIN

  • Volcanic eruptions

  • Wildfires

  • Smelting

  • Manufacture of pesticides, herbicides and paper

Dioxin

> Industry > Market > Consumer

Source: OMS, Rachel’s Hazardous Waste News 269, Promed.


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DIRECT EFFECTS ON THE AGRIFOOD CHAIN AGRIFOOD CHAIN

Dioxin

In Belgium, 1999

Supplier >

>

> Market >

  • Europe suspends imports

  • Belgium loses US$1,500 million

Source of contamination:

97.5% meat and dairy products

Source: OMS, Rachel’s Hazardous Waste News 269, Promed.


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PAST AGRIFOOD CHAIN

Production

Public sector

Diseases/pests

Eradication

National system

PRESENT

Food chain

Articulation public/public

public/private

Risk factors

Determine and apply standards

National system/regional

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS


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PAST AGRIFOOD CHAIN

Definable problems

Large technical cost

Inspection of the product

Specific skill sets

PRESENT

Risk management

Institutional investment

Systems confidence

Multidisciplinary approach

AGRICULTURAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS


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RELATIVE ADVANCEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS

TOTAL

REGULATORY

TECHNOLOGICAL

INSTITUTIONAL

Source:IICA.


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SUMMARY SYSTEMS

  • The world of agricultural health is far different than before.

  • Agricultural health and food safety institutions must adopt a much broader focus.

  • Support organizations (IDB, IICA) must retool to be effective.


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PHASE I: SYSTEMS

Preparation of “White Paper” to articulate the expanded vision of AHFS.

Design and implementation of a program of action.

THE MULTIPLES ROLES OF AGRICULTURAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY (AHFS)

  • PHASE II:


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