History of the Iran and Iraq Conflict - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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History of the Iran and Iraq Conflict. Complete the following on-line Map Quiz of the Middle East and print out a hard copy, put your name on it and submit it for credit. Rethinking Schools - Just For Fun - Map Game Assignment due date is Friday, December 21 st . Iran/Iraq War 1980-1988.

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History of the Iran and Iraq Conflict

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History of the iran and iraq conflict l.jpg

History of the Iran and Iraq Conflict

  • Complete the following on-line Map Quiz of the Middle East and print out a hard copy, put your name on it and submit it for credit. Rethinking Schools - Just For Fun - Map Game

  • Assignment due date is Friday, December 21st.

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Iran/Iraq War1980-1988

  • War broke out because of Iraq’s invasion of the Khuzestan (Southern)Territory of Iran.

  • Prior to this, Iran was bombing Iraq and urged the Iraqi people to overthrow Saddam Hussein.

  • Over the course of 8 years, over 1million people died as a result of the fighting between these two countries.

  • Who started it?

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The conflict stems from events dated 637 A.D.

  • Arabs (Iraq) successfully invaded Persian (Iran) territory

  • As a result Persian’s converted to Islam, but viewed their conquerors as unsophisticated.

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  • Arabs (Iraq) saw the Persians (Iran) were too effeminate.

  • Persians enjoyed fine wine, banquets and gardens.

  • This attitude never disappeared.

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Causes for conflict in 1980

  • Ownership of three tiny islands in the mouth of the Persian Gulf

  • Control of the Shatt Al-Arab

  • Political Ideology: Theocracy vs Dictatorship

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Tiny Islands

  • Iran claimed ownership of the Islands based on historical record and in 1971 used force to take control of them from the United Arab Emirates.

  • Iraq denounced the action…

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Shatt Al-Arab

  • Both Iraq and Iran struggled over control of a 127 mile waterway that connects the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf

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Iraq was ruled by Saddam Hussein a Sunni Muslim

Saddam Hussein used force to gain compliance of the Sunni, Shia and Kurds living within the country (Dictatorship)

Iran is a Theocracy (Rule by religion).

In the late 1970’s the Shaw or King began to secularize the government and limit the authority of Imams.


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Iran Continued

  • The Shaw was overthrown by Ayatollah Khomeini (Sign of God) and encouraged Shia Muslims in Iraq to overthrow Saddam Hussein.

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Flashpoint of War

  • Saddam believed that Iran could be easily defeated because of turmoil in leadership and invaded the southern region of Iran hoping that the Arabs in the region would rise up against the Ayatollah…

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Advantage Iran

  • Large numbers of teenagers volunteered to fight.

  • Iraq asked for a cease-fire

  • Khomeini refused seeking to “Oust Saddam”

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Advantage Iraq

  • USSR began to supplement Iraq’s Air Force and missile supply

  • In 1985 Iraq adopted a Total War Policy – Any and all targets are viable

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Advantage Iraq

  • US normalizes relations with Iraq

  • Don Rumsfeld “Diplomatic relations have been restored in all but name.”

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By 1986/87 the ground warstalemated but Iraq dominated the air.

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Article:Iran Contra Affair

Iran-Contra Affair

  • Who were the Contra’s?

  • What did the Boland Amendment enforce?

  • What order did NSA McFarlane receive from President Regan?

  • What does covert and embargo mean?

  • How do the Contra’s in Nicaragua connect to the war in the Middle East?

  • What were the Tower Commissions findings?

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USSR (Supplies)

France (Supplies)

Kuwait (Money)


“Making the Gulf safe for everyone or no one”

China (Supplies)

USA (Secretly)

War Becomes International

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UAE and Saudi Arabia experienced attacks on oil refineries

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Italy sent mine sweepers to clear the gulf from Iran’s Deployment of floating mines.

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UN Resolution 598 (1987)

  • Immediate cease fire

  • Reestablish pre-war boundaries

  • Full prisoner exchange

  • Further negotiations with UN.

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Iraq immediately accepts resolutionIran accepts resolution within a year

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Tomorrow: Iraq’s falling out with Kuwait.

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Iraq’s Invasion of KuwaitAug. 2, 1990

  • US Viewpoint

  • Invasion a threat to Saudi Arabia

  • Aggression against a sovereign nation

  • Interrupted oil exports

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Why would Iraq invade Kuwait when two years earlier, it was supporting Iraq in the war against Iran?

  • Conflict among OPEC Member nations

  • Access to Persian Gulf

  • Horizontal Drilling

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Iraq failed to repay loans made to them by Kuwait.

  • As a result Kuwait increased the export of BPD of oil in violation of OPEC agreements.

  • This lowered the price of oil and further reduced Iraq’s ability to earn income.

Tariq Aziz Quote

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OPECOrganization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • Stabilize price of oil by restricting the quantity available for purchase

  • Each year member nations agree upon quotas per country to export

  • Refused to interfere

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Iraq then Invades saying that they annexed Kuwait into Iraq.

  • Mutually beneficial relationship between Iraq and Kuwait

  • However Kuwait asks the UN for assistance in expelling Iraq

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Saudi Arabia is concerned for their Country

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Desert Shield

  • Then Secretary of Defense.

  • Saudi Arabia asks for US assistance in defending against an alleged Iraqi Invasion

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Al Queda

  • Osama bin Laden offers the assistance of his group to defend Saudi Arabia

  • Just won a war against the USSR in Afghanistan and believes Iraq will be no problem.

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King Fahd ofSaudi Arabia

  • Decides to side with the United States.

  • Bin Laden’s reaction?

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Operation Desert Storm

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January 16, 1991

  • Operation Desert Shield morfs into Operation Desert Storm with air raids on Iraq

  • February 24th Ground War is launched

  • 100 hours later, Iraq surrenders.

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Environmental Crimes

  • 723 oil fields set afire

  • 5% of the World’s consumption of oil burned per day

  • 1 to 2 million tons of CO2 entered into the atmosphere a day

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No Alternative LeaderNo exit Strategy

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