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2. C H A P T E R. O U T L I N E. Objectives. Information Management Strategies. Critical Thinking Skills. Thinking Critically. Copyright © 2001 South-Western College Publishing Co. Learning Objectives.

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2

C H A P T E R

O U T L I N E

Objectives

Information Management Strategies

Critical Thinking Skills

Thinking Critically

Copyright © 2001 South-Western College Publishing Co.


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Learning Objectives

1. List a number of methods for generating ideas and identify ways of using information.

2. Recognize the basic elements of critical thinking and list several of the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.

3. Describe several the role of reasoning in creative problem solving.

4. Develop a strategy for becoming a critical thinker.


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List a number of methods for generating ideas and identity ways of using information.

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Information

Management

Strategies

Generating Ideas

  • Brainstorming

    A group-based, structured, moderated process

    • Starts with a warm-up, participants review rules

    • Practice exercises

    • Present the real problem

      • call out many ideas

      • record, categorize, and evaluate every idea

    • Recommend the most promising ideas to the problem owner

  • Reverse Brainstormin: being critical

  • Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    List a number of methods for generating ideas and identity ways of using information.

    Idea-Spurring Questions

    • New questions may spark innovative solutions

    • Can We Put the Product, Material or Devise to Other Uses?

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    Adapt?

    What else is like this? What other ideas does it suggest?

    Modify?

    Change meaning, color, motion, sound, odor, form, or taste ?

    Magnify?

    Add? Stronger? Larger? More? Faster? Heavier?

    Minify?

    Subtract? Eliminate? Smaller? Less? Slower? Lighter?

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    List a number of methods for generating ideas and identity ways of using information.

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    Substitute?

    What else? Another place? Another time? Other components?

    Rearrange?

    Another layout? Another sequence? Change pace?

    Reverse?

    Opposites? Turn it around? Turn it upside-down?

    Combine?

    A blend? An assortment? Mix or match? Combine purposes?

    Combine ideas or functions?

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    List a number of methods for generating ideas and identity ways of using information.

    • Forced Relationship Technique

      We look at one item and force its attributes on another in order to generate new possibilities.

    • Attribute Listing

      Mostly for improving tangible items

      Select object or process, list parts, list essential qualities, systematically change or modify parts.

    • Bionics

      How is it done in nature?

    • Scientific Methods

      • Define and analyze the problem

      • Gather and analyze data

      • Propose and test solutions

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    List a number of methods for generating ideas and identity ways of using information.

    • Visual Imagery Technique

      Forming a mental or visual image to produce creative ideas or solutions to problems.

      • Reproductive imagination

      • Speculative imagination

      • Structural visualization

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills

    Gathering Information

    Gathering Primary Data: first hand information

    • Field research: participant observer, direct observation, case study

    • Content analysis: the study of documents

    • Experiments: research with well defined methods

    • Survey research: random selection


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    List a number of methods for generating ideas and identity ways of using information.

    Gathering Secondary Data: already available

    Limits: dated, biased, costly

    • Electronic databases: Business Periodicals Index, GPO Monthly, The Humanities Index, MLA International Bibliography, Public Affairs Information Service, Social Sciences Index

    • Encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks and reference books, yearbooks, and almanacs, bound volumes, journals and periodicals, abstracts and indexes, government publications, directories, business publications, book reviews

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills

    Finding Business Information on the Internet

    • World Wide Web: .gov .edu . com .org

    • search engines: finding information on the web


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    List a number of methods for generating ideas and identity ways of using information.

    Assessing Information

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    • Topical? Current?

    • Complete? Biased?

    • Accessible? Useful?

    • Meaningful? Usable?

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills

    Using Information

    • To describe

    • To predict

    • To explain


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    List a number of methods for generating ideas and identity ways of using information.

    CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    • Developing an awareness of the assumptions under which we, and others, think and act.

    • Thinking fair-mindedly about many subjects and issues, not just their own beliefs and viewpoints.

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills

    What is Critical Thinking?

    • The ability to think about one's own thinking process.

    • Skillful, responsible thinking that is conducive to judgment because it relies on criteria, is self-correcting, and is sensitive to context. 30


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    Recognize the basic elements of critical thinking and list several of the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.

    What is Critical Thinking Is Not

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    • The ability to think about one's own thinking process.

    • Skillful, responsible thinking that is conducive to judgment because it relies on criteria, is self-correcting, and is sensitive to context. 30

    • Not the compiling of facts, figures, formulas, and answers

    • Critical thinking involves more - a deeper, more reflective set of skills.

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills

    The Elements of Thought

    • The uncritical thinker is often unclear, imprecise, vague, illogical, unreflective, superficial, inconsistent, inaccurate, or trivial.


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    Recognize the basic elements of critical thinking and list several of the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.

    Universal Intellectual Standards

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    • Clarity

    • Accuracy

    • Precision

    • Relevance

    • Depth

    • Breadth

    • Logic

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    Describe the role of reasoning in creative problem solving. several of the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.

    How Reason Is Used to Solve Problems

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    • At Least One Question Is at issue in Every Instance of Reasoning

    • All Human Reasoning Is Designed to Serve Some Purpose or Goal

    • All Reasoning Must Start Somewhere and Proceed in Some Direction

    • All Reasoning Uses Some Ideas or Concepts and Not Others

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    Describe the role of reasoning in creative problem solving. several of the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.

    • Most Reasoning Relies on Principles or Theories

    • Most Reasoning is Based on Some Experiences, Evidence, or Data

    • All Discliplines Have a Logic

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    Describe the role of reasoning in creative problem solving. several of the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.

    Intellectual Traits of a Critical Thinker

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    • Intellectual Humility

    • Intellectual Courage

    • Intellectual Empathy

    • Intellectual Integrity

    • Intellectual Perseverance

    • Faith in Reason

    • Intellectual Sense of Justice

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    Develop a strategy for becoming a critical thinker. several of the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.

    Strategies for Becoming a Critical Thinker

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    • Think Independently

    • Develop Insight

    • Exercise Fair-mindedness

    • Explore Thoughts Underlying Feelings and Feelings Underlying Thoughts

    • Develop Intellectual IIumility and Suspend Judgment

    • Develop Intellectual Courage

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    Develop a strategy for becoming a critical thinker. several of the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.

    Information

    Management

    Strategies

    • Develop Intellectual Integrity

    • Develop Intellectual Perseverance

    • Develop Confdence in Reason

    Critical

    Thinking

    Skills


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    The End several of the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.

    Copyright © 2000 South-Western College Publishing Co.