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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Digestion is the break down of foods into nutrients for the body to use. Food is broken down by two processes: chemical digestion is the chemical break down of foods mechanical digestion is the chewing, mixing, churning break down of foods.

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'DIGESTIVE SYSTEM' - daniel_millan


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digestive system
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  • Digestion is the break down of foods into nutrients for the body to use.
  • Food is broken down by two processes:
    • chemical digestion is the chemical break down of foods
    • mechanical digestion is the chewing, mixing, churning break down of foods
mouth salivary glands produce and release saliva it helps moisten mouth
Mouth- salivary glands produce and release saliva; it helps moisten mouth
  • ptyalin- enzyme found in saliva- chemical substance that breaks down starches in foods into simple sugars
  • tongue- moves food around & mixes it with saliva
    • 4 types of taste buds (sweet, sour, bitter, salty)
    • flavor of food is mixture of taste, texture, & odor
    • chewed food is moved to the back of mouth by tongue
  • epiglottis- small flap of tissue that automatically covers the windpipe as food goes down
esophagus greek word meaning to carry what is eaten
Esophagus- Greek word meaning to carry what is eaten
  • 25 cm long
  • mucous glands line the wall to keep food moist & help move along the digestive system
  • takes 4 to 10 seconds for food to move down to the stomach
  • peristalsis- waves of muscular rhythmic contractions; move food downward with a squeezing actions; this allows you to swallow even when you are laying down
stomach j shaped organ
Stomach- J shaped organ
  • food enters and cells in stomach wall release a fluid called gastric juice (juice contains hydrochloric acid (HCl), enzymes like pepsin, and mucous
    • specialized cells in the walls of the stomach release about 2 liters of HCl each day; HCl destroys bacteria present in food
  • food undergoes both mechanical (peristalsis) & chemical digestion (pepsin & HCl)
  • food moves through stomach in 2 to 4 hours and changes into thin, watery liquid called chyme
small intestine 2 5 cm in diameter measures about 4 m to 7 m
Small Intestine- 2.5 cm in diameter, measures about 4 m to 7 m
  • food is slowly released from the stomach as chyme
  • most of digestion occurs here
  • intestinal juices are released from the cells lining the wall
  • inner lining looks like wet velvet and is covered with villi- tiny fingerlike structures that increases the surface area enabling more food to be absorbed
  • when undigested & unabsorbed materials leave the small intestine, it is basically free of nutrients; water & cellulose are left
digestive helpers food never goes through these organs but they aid in digestion
DIGESTIVE HELPERS- food NEVER goes through these organs but they aid in digestion.
  • Liver- located to the right of the stomach
    • largest & heaviest organ in the body;
    • produces bile & stored in the gall bladder
  • Gall Bladder- bile is released to break up large fat particles in the small intestine
  • Pancreas- soft triangular organ located between stomach & small intestine
    • helps break down proteins, starches & fats
    • also produces insulin a hormone that helps regulate sugar
large intestine horseshoe shaped about 7 5 cm in diameter and 1 5 m long
Large Intestine-horseshoe shaped about 7.5 cm in diameter and 1.5 m long
  • folds over the coils of the small intestine
  • main job is to absorb water from undigested mass
  • helpful bacteria feed on undigested materials like cellulose to make vitamins K (blood clotting) & B (vitamins B, niacin, thiamine for nervous system)
  • bacteria produces gas
  • unabsorbed & undigested materials change into solid mass called feces or stool
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Rectum- last section of the large intestine; stores feces until expelled
  • Anus- an opening at the end of the rectum through which wastes are excreted
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