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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Digestion is the break down of foods into nutrients for the body to use. Food is broken down by two processes: chemical digestion is the chemical break down of foods mechanical digestion is the chewing, mixing, churning break down of foods.

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'DIGESTIVE SYSTEM' - daniel_millan


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Digestive system l.jpg
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

  • Digestion is the break down of foods into nutrients for the body to use.

  • Food is broken down by two processes:

    • chemical digestion is the chemical break down of foods

    • mechanical digestion is the chewing, mixing, churning break down of foods


Mouth salivary glands produce and release saliva it helps moisten mouth l.jpg
Mouth- salivary glands produce and release saliva; it helps moisten mouth

  • ptyalin- enzyme found in saliva- chemical substance that breaks down starches in foods into simple sugars

  • tongue- moves food around & mixes it with saliva

    • 4 types of taste buds (sweet, sour, bitter, salty)

    • flavor of food is mixture of taste, texture, & odor

    • chewed food is moved to the back of mouth by tongue

  • epiglottis- small flap of tissue that automatically covers the windpipe as food goes down


Esophagus greek word meaning to carry what is eaten l.jpg
Esophagus- Greek word meaning to carry what is eaten moisten mouth

  • 25 cm long

  • mucous glands line the wall to keep food moist & help move along the digestive system

  • takes 4 to 10 seconds for food to move down to the stomach

  • peristalsis- waves of muscular rhythmic contractions; move food downward with a squeezing actions; this allows you to swallow even when you are laying down


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Stomach- J shaped organ moisten mouth

  • food enters and cells in stomach wall release a fluid called gastric juice (juice contains hydrochloric acid (HCl), enzymes like pepsin, and mucous

    • specialized cells in the walls of the stomach release about 2 liters of HCl each day; HCl destroys bacteria present in food

  • food undergoes both mechanical (peristalsis) & chemical digestion (pepsin & HCl)

  • food moves through stomach in 2 to 4 hours and changes into thin, watery liquid called chyme


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Small Intestine- 2.5 cm in diameter, measures about 4 m to 7 m

  • food is slowly released from the stomach as chyme

  • most of digestion occurs here

  • intestinal juices are released from the cells lining the wall

  • inner lining looks like wet velvet and is covered with villi- tiny fingerlike structures that increases the surface area enabling more food to be absorbed

  • when undigested & unabsorbed materials leave the small intestine, it is basically free of nutrients; water & cellulose are left


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DIGESTIVE HELPERS- mfood NEVER goes through these organs but they aid in digestion.

  • Liver- located to the right of the stomach

    • largest & heaviest organ in the body;

    • produces bile & stored in the gall bladder

  • Gall Bladder- bile is released to break up large fat particles in the small intestine

  • Pancreas- soft triangular organ located between stomach & small intestine

    • helps break down proteins, starches & fats

    • also produces insulin a hormone that helps regulate sugar


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Large Intestine- mhorseshoe shaped about 7.5 cm in diameter and 1.5 m long

  • folds over the coils of the small intestine

  • main job is to absorb water from undigested mass

  • helpful bacteria feed on undigested materials like cellulose to make vitamins K (blood clotting) & B (vitamins B, niacin, thiamine for nervous system)

  • bacteria produces gas

  • unabsorbed & undigested materials change into solid mass called feces or stool


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  • Rectum m- last section of the large intestine; stores feces until expelled

  • Anus- an opening at the end of the rectum through which wastes are excreted


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