Chemical bonding
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Chemical Bonding . Bonds between atoms are caused by electrons in outermost shells The process of bond formation is called a reaction. The Ionic Bond. Visit www.worldofteaching.com For 100’s of free powerpoints. Helium, neon and argon are atoms which do not react with other atoms.

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The ionic bond
The Ionic Bond shells

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For 100’s of free powerpoints


Helium, neon and argon are atoms which do not react with other atoms.

We call them the Inert Gases (or Noble Gases) because of this.

Each of these gases has a full outer electron shell (orbit).

10p10n

18p22n

2p2n

20

Ne

4

He

10

2

40

Ar

18

2,8

2,8,8


Sodium other atoms.

23

Na

11

e.c. 2,8,1

11p

12n

11 protons

12 neutrons

11 electrons


Chlorine other atoms.

35

Cl

17

e.c. 2,8,7

17 protons

17p

18n

18 Neutrons

17 electrons


+ other atoms.

The Sodium atom has 1 Electron in it’s outer shell.

Na

e.c. 2,8,1

Atom

The Sodium loses 1 electron to leave a complete outer shell.

It is now a Sodium ion with a charge of 1 +

(Na +)

e.c. (2,8)+

Ion


- other atoms.

The Chlorine atom has 7 electrons in it’s outer shell.

Cl

e.c. 2,8,7

Atom

(Cl - )

The Chlorine gains 1 electron to gain a complete outer shell.

It is now a Chlorine ion with a charge of 1 -

e.c. (2,8,8)-

Ion


The Ionic Bond other atoms.

Chlorine atom

Cl

Sodium atom

Na

+

-

Sodium ion

(Na +)

Chlorine ion

(Cl -)

The sodium atom loses one electron to attain a complete outer shell and become a positive ion (Na +). The Chlorine atom gains one electron to attain a complete outer shell and become a negative ion (Cl –).Strong electrostatic forces attract the sodium and chlorine ions.


  • Ionic Compounds other atoms.

  • Held together by strong electrostatic forces

  • Opposite charges attract

  • High melting points and boiling points

  • Regular structures – giant ionic lattices

  • When melted or dissolved ionic compounds conduct electricity


Covalent bonding
Covalent Bonding other atoms.

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Chlorine atom 2,8,7 other atoms.


2 Chlorine atoms other atoms.

Outer shells only


Chlorine molecule Cl other atoms.2

Electrons shared

Each outer shell has 8 electrons

Forces (bonds) between atoms in the molecule very strong

Forces between molecules very weak

Molecular or covalent compounds are usually gases or liquids – they have low melting points and low boiling points

Molecules have no overall electric charge



Cl other atoms.

Cl

Cl

Cl

Chlorine Cl2

Cl

Cl


Covalent Bonds: other atoms.

Water H2O

Methane CH4

Ammonia NH3

Hydrogen H2

Hydrogen Chloride HCl

Oxygen O2

N.B. Oxygen has a double bond


16 other atoms.

O

8

Oxygen

Oxygen atom 2,6


O other atoms.

O

2 Oxygen atoms (outer shells only)

Double covalent bond


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