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CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION. Generation vs. Demand: Demand growing 3% per year New Generation more difficult to build due to Environmental Factors: Air Emissions for Fossil Fuels Land and Water Impacts with greenfield sites

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CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION

  • Generation vs. Demand:

  • Demand growing 3% per year

  • New Generation more difficult to build due to Environmental Factors:

    • Air Emissions for Fossil Fuels

    • Land and Water Impacts with greenfield sites

    • Outlet Transmission Lines nearly impossible to build or upgrade (NIMBY)


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Generation

  • Large, Centralized Plants (Old Way)

  • Small, Distributed Plants (New Way)

  • Also, Site Renewable Generation where it makes Sense (and Profit)


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Large Plants

  • Environmental Issues

  • Fossil Fuels

  • Location/Siting


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Large Plants (Cont.)

  • New Ideas:

    • “Clean Coal”

    • Wind,

    • Solar,

    • Geothermal,

    • Biomass

    • Oceanic Thermal Energy


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Clean Coal

  • Coal Gasification (Combined Cycle) - Low Emmissions

  • Could Happen on Iron Range (Excelsior Project)


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WIND

  • Wind Generators currently very popular

  • More and more Cost Effective

  • Not a Cure-All - never windy when you need it most


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Wind Farm

  • Current Standard – 1.75 MW WTG on 80 meter Towers

  • Energy cost now in the 4 cents/KWH range

  • OFF-SHORE has great potential





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Solar

  • Photvoltaics

    • Electricity Directly from Sunlight

    • Low Conversion efficiency

    • Fairly High Cost

    • Amorphous Designs could

      be applied anywhere

  • Solar Thermal - Solar One

    • Could yet show some promise

  • ONLY WHEN THE SUN SHINES


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Geothermal

  • Hot Water from the Earth

  • Use the Hot Water or Flash to Steam

  • Currently 2700 MW capacity in US

  • Capacity growing at 9% worldwide

  • Excellent for Home Use - Heat Pumps



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OTEC

  • Extract “solar” heat from Ocean Water

  • Flash it to Steam for Turbine/Generator

  • Can be combined with DeSalination

  • Costly


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  • Typical Energy Costs for Various Generation Sources

    • Type: Installed Cost: Energy Cost:

    • Fuel Cells $15,000-20,000/kW 15-20 cents/kwh

    • Solar - PV Cells $6,000-8,000/kW 12-15 cents/kwh

    • Geothermal $5,000-10,000/kW 8-10 cents/kwh

    • Biomass $2,000-2,500/kW 3-5 cents/kwh

    • Wind $1,000-2,000/kW 3-5 cents/kwh

    • Natrl Gas (Turbine) $1,500-1,800/kW 2-4 cents/kwh

    • Coal $1,500-2,000/kW 1.5-2 cents/kwh

    • Hydro $2,000-3,000/kW 0.2-0.5 cents/kwh


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Distributed Generation

  • Make Electricity where and when needed:

    • Neighborhood

    • Commercial Center

    • Industrial Park

  • Wind, Solar, Geothermal, Biomass

  • Fuel Cells

  • MicroTurbines


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Fuel Cells

  • Most common type: PEM Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane

  • Strips Electrons from Hydrogen to make Electricity

  • Safety/Cost

  • Where to get H2??

  • H2 Energy Density


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Microturbines

  • Run on Natural gas – Short Sighted?

  • 30-50 kilowatt Designs

  • Create both Electricity and Hot Water

  • Small businesses, collection of homes


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DEMAND SIDE

  • Conservation Through:

  • Market Pricing

  • Efficient Products


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Market Pricing

  • Energy Prices becoming De-Regulated

  • New Equipment to Automate Pricing:

    • Smart Meters

    • Smart Appliances


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Smart Meters

  • Talks to Electric Company

  • Records Hourly Prices

  • Tells Appliances what current Price is

  • Shops Around for a Better Rate?


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Efficient Products

  • Smart Appliances run only when energy is cheapest, talk to each other

  • Superconductors

  • Cars


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Superconducting Motors

  • Extremely Efficient – Zero Electric Losses

  • Very High Torque - 140X increase in Power Density

  • Costly?

  • Not very Rugged –

    Bismuth-Cu Ceramic

    Tape

  • US Navy Loves Them


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Other Superconductors

  • Transformers

  • TransmissionLines

  • Potential Savings…

    • Between 5 and 10% of all Electricity Generated is lost in Transformers and T-Lines


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Cars

  • EVs - Electric Vehicles

    • Biggest Problem is Energy Density

      • Battery Powered - Poor Range/Heavy

      • Fuel Cell Pwrd - Hydrogen is volatile, has poor energy density and delivery system in early development, LNG has emissions

  • Hybrids - LEVs

    • Just appearing on Market

    • Good “Next Step”

    • 35 MPG SUV:

      – Ford ’05 Escape


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The HYDROGEN ECONOMY

  • The US DOE has Millions of Dollars to award in Hydrogen Fuel Research

  • BENEFITS:

    • Burns Clean

    • Not a Fossil Fuel

  • DRAWBACKS:

    • Volatile (but so are many other fuels)

    • Low Energy Density

    • Not Available in Pure Form


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How to Get Hydrogen

  • Hydrogen currently produced by two methods:

    • Steam Reforming (Heating Fossil Fuels to release hydrogen)

    • Electrolysis (splitting water molecules with an electric current)

  • New Methods:

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) – PV cells, immersed directly in water, doped with organic chemicals to increase efficiency, make hydrogen with sunlight

    Photobiological – Using the inherent photosynthetic capability of bacteria to break water down


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CONCLUSIONS

  • More of the Same Old Stuff (with new tech)

  • More and More New Stuff

  • Greater Emphasis on Environmental Factors

  • Conservation is Key

  • Wireless, Wireless, Wireless – Improved communications will lead to better efficiencies


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WEB References

  • National Renewable Energy Labs

    • http://www.nrel.gov/

  • Electric Power Research Institute

    • http://www.epri.com/

  • US Dept. of Energy

    • http://www.energy.gov/ or www.eere.gov

  • Electric Vehicles

    • http://www.evworld.com/


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