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CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION. Generation vs. Demand: Demand growing 3% per year New Generation more difficult to build due to Environmental Factors: Air Emissions for Fossil Fuels Land and Water Impacts with greenfield sites

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changes in electric generation
CHANGES IN ELECTRIC GENERATION
  • Generation vs. Demand:
  • Demand growing 3% per year
  • New Generation more difficult to build due to Environmental Factors:
    • Air Emissions for Fossil Fuels
    • Land and Water Impacts with greenfield sites
    • Outlet Transmission Lines nearly impossible to build or upgrade (NIMBY)
generation
Generation
  • Large, Centralized Plants (Old Way)
  • Small, Distributed Plants (New Way)
  • Also, Site Renewable Generation where it makes Sense (and Profit)
large plants
Large Plants
  • Environmental Issues
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Location/Siting
large plants cont
Large Plants (Cont.)
  • New Ideas:
    • “Clean Coal”
    • Wind,
    • Solar,
    • Geothermal,
    • Biomass
    • Oceanic Thermal Energy
clean coal
Clean Coal
  • Coal Gasification (Combined Cycle) - Low Emmissions
  • Could Happen on Iron Range (Excelsior Project)
slide6
WIND
  • Wind Generators currently very popular
  • More and more Cost Effective
  • Not a Cure-All - never windy when you need it most
wind farm
Wind Farm
  • Current Standard – 1.75 MW WTG on 80 meter Towers
  • Energy cost now in the 4 cents/KWH range
  • OFF-SHORE has great potential
solar
Solar
  • Photvoltaics
    • Electricity Directly from Sunlight
    • Low Conversion efficiency
    • Fairly High Cost
    • Amorphous Designs could

be applied anywhere

  • Solar Thermal - Solar One
    • Could yet show some promise
  • ONLY WHEN THE SUN SHINES
geothermal
Geothermal
  • Hot Water from the Earth
  • Use the Hot Water or Flash to Steam
  • Currently 2700 MW capacity in US
  • Capacity growing at 9% worldwide
  • Excellent for Home Use - Heat Pumps
slide14
OTEC
  • Extract “solar” heat from Ocean Water
  • Flash it to Steam for Turbine/Generator
  • Can be combined with DeSalination
  • Costly
slide15
Typical Energy Costs for Various Generation Sources
    • Type: Installed Cost: Energy Cost:
    • Fuel Cells $15,000-20,000/kW 15-20 cents/kwh
    • Solar - PV Cells $6,000-8,000/kW 12-15 cents/kwh
    • Geothermal $5,000-10,000/kW 8-10 cents/kwh
    • Biomass $2,000-2,500/kW 3-5 cents/kwh
    • Wind $1,000-2,000/kW 3-5 cents/kwh
    • Natrl Gas (Turbine) $1,500-1,800/kW 2-4 cents/kwh
    • Coal $1,500-2,000/kW 1.5-2 cents/kwh
    • Hydro $2,000-3,000/kW 0.2-0.5 cents/kwh
distributed generation
Distributed Generation
  • Make Electricity where and when needed:
    • Neighborhood
    • Commercial Center
    • Industrial Park
  • Wind, Solar, Geothermal, Biomass
  • Fuel Cells
  • MicroTurbines
fuel cells
Fuel Cells
  • Most common type: PEM Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane
  • Strips Electrons from Hydrogen to make Electricity
  • Safety/Cost
  • Where to get H2??
  • H2 Energy Density
microturbines
Microturbines
  • Run on Natural gas – Short Sighted?
  • 30-50 kilowatt Designs
  • Create both Electricity and Hot Water
  • Small businesses, collection of homes
demand side
DEMAND SIDE
  • Conservation Through:
  • Market Pricing
  • Efficient Products
market pricing
Market Pricing
  • Energy Prices becoming De-Regulated
  • New Equipment to Automate Pricing:
    • Smart Meters
    • Smart Appliances
smart meters
Smart Meters
  • Talks to Electric Company
  • Records Hourly Prices
  • Tells Appliances what current Price is
  • Shops Around for a Better Rate?
efficient products
Efficient Products
  • Smart Appliances run only when energy is cheapest, talk to each other
  • Superconductors
  • Cars
superconducting motors
Superconducting Motors
  • Extremely Efficient – Zero Electric Losses
  • Very High Torque - 140X increase in Power Density
  • Costly?
  • Not very Rugged –

Bismuth-Cu Ceramic

Tape

  • US Navy Loves Them
other superconductors
Other Superconductors
  • Transformers
  • TransmissionLines
  • Potential Savings…
    • Between 5 and 10% of all Electricity Generated is lost in Transformers and T-Lines
slide25
Cars
  • EVs - Electric Vehicles
    • Biggest Problem is Energy Density
      • Battery Powered - Poor Range/Heavy
      • Fuel Cell Pwrd - Hydrogen is volatile, has poor energy density and delivery system in early development, LNG has emissions
  • Hybrids - LEVs
    • Just appearing on Market
    • Good “Next Step”
    • 35 MPG SUV:

– Ford ’05 Escape

the hydrogen economy
The HYDROGEN ECONOMY
  • The US DOE has Millions of Dollars to award in Hydrogen Fuel Research
  • BENEFITS:
    • Burns Clean
    • Not a Fossil Fuel
  • DRAWBACKS:
    • Volatile (but so are many other fuels)
    • Low Energy Density
    • Not Available in Pure Form
how to get hydrogen
How to Get Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen currently produced by two methods:
    • Steam Reforming (Heating Fossil Fuels to release hydrogen)
    • Electrolysis (splitting water molecules with an electric current)
  • New Methods:

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) – PV cells, immersed directly in water, doped with organic chemicals to increase efficiency, make hydrogen with sunlight

Photobiological – Using the inherent photosynthetic capability of bacteria to break water down

conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • More of the Same Old Stuff (with new tech)
  • More and More New Stuff
  • Greater Emphasis on Environmental Factors
  • Conservation is Key
  • Wireless, Wireless, Wireless – Improved communications will lead to better efficiencies
web references
WEB References
  • National Renewable Energy Labs
    • http://www.nrel.gov/
  • Electric Power Research Institute
    • http://www.epri.com/
  • US Dept. of Energy
    • http://www.energy.gov/ or www.eere.gov
  • Electric Vehicles
    • http://www.evworld.com/
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