Carnivora
Download
1 / 120

Carnivora Carnivora Carnivory and Carnivora are not synonyms. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 566 Views
  • Uploaded on

Carnivora. Carnivora . Carnivory and Carnivora are not synonyms. Most carnivora are specialized for ‘meat’ eating, but certainly not all. Many other non-carnivora consume meat. 2 suborders: Caniformia = dog like: possess alisphenoid canal

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Carnivora Carnivora Carnivory and Carnivora are not synonyms.' - daniel_millan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Carnivora2 l.jpg
Carnivora

  • Carnivory and Carnivora are not synonyms.

  • Most carnivora are specialized for ‘meat’ eating, but certainly not all.

  • Many other non-carnivora consume meat.

  • 2 suborders:

    • Caniformia = dog like: possess alisphenoid canal

    • Feliformia = cat like: usually lack alisphenoid canal





Hemigalus derbyanus civet note bullae l.jpg
Hemigalus derbyanus: civet – note bullae


Nandinia binotata palm civet l.jpg
Nandinia binotata: palm civet


Carnivora11 l.jpg
Carnivora

  • It is easy to see how cats and canids fit this classification, but how about mustelids?

  • The 2 suborders are defined on the basis of the auditory bullae and the carotid circulation.

  • Furthermore, aquatic carnivores (Odobenidae, Otariida, and Phocidae) are pinnipeds (feather footed), while others are fissipeds (split footed). These were once suborders.


Carnivore morphology l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology

  • All carnivores have well developed canines.

  • They possess carnassial teeth formed by upper p4 and lower m1.

  • Carnassials are designed to shear through muscle and soft tissue, and in some, to slice through bone as well.


A lion b hyaena c dog d marten e mongoose f bear l.jpg
a: lionb: hyaenac: dogd: martene: mongoosef: bear


Carnivore morphology14 l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology

  • Skull shape reflects feeding strategy.

  • Compare the structure of the musculature of carnivores and herbivores, as well as the relative position of the mandibular condyle.


Slide15 l.jpg

Compare the relative positions of the mandibular condyles and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.


Carnivore morphology17 l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • Mandibular fossa differs too.

    • It has a ‘c’ shape in many, especially mustelids, that permits no lateral movement.

    • In procyonids and ursids, it is more likely to more ‘open’, allowing more lateral movement.

    • Why do you think that is?


Note the mandibular fossa in the mustelid and the bear what function might follow this form l.jpg
Note the mandibular fossa in the mustelid and the bear. and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores. What function might follow this form?


Carnivore morphology19 l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • An important diagnostic characteristic of carnivores is the structure of the auditory bulla. Recall, this is derived from the angular bone of reptiles.

  • Recall, reptilian jaw articulation is quadrate-articular, while mammalian is dentary-squamosal.


Carnivore morphology21 l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • Carnivores have 2 forms of auditory bullae

    • formed by tympanic bone

    • formed by tympanic and endotympanic.

  • In feliformes, the bullae are formed by the tympanic and endotympanic, and have a septum in between.

  • In caniformes, the bullae are formed by the tympanic, and there is no septum.


Carnivore morphology22 l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • Most carnivores have a baculum.

    • This is sort of interesting. What other mammals have a baculum? Rodents. Why?

  • Carnivores also have induced ovulation!

  • Coincidence?


A red fox b racoon c least weasel d mongoose e genet f lion l.jpg
a: red fox and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores. b: racoonc: least weaseld: mongoosee: genetf: lion


Carnivore morphology24 l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • Most have anal sace used for intraspecific communication (territoriality - home range etc.)

  • Sometimes, these are used for defense (skunks).

  • Absent in ursids, minimal in canids and felids.


Carnivore morphology25 l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • Claws are prominent except in clawless otters (Aonyx), but even here they are vestigal.

  • Felids and viverids often have retractile claws.

  • No opposable digits.

  • Centrale, scaphoid, and lunar are fused.


Carnivore morphology28 l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • Clavicle is reduced or absent.

    • Permits increased stride length.

      • Two ways to run faster: 1) increase stride rate or 2) increase stride length.

      • Note: many ungulates also lack a clavicle.

  • Some are digitigrade (felids and canids) while others are plantigrade (ursids, procyonids). Difference in speed?


Carnivore morphology29 l.jpg
Carnivore Morphology and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • Size range is considerable: least weasel Mustela nivalis weighs 70g, while Ursus arctos weighs 800kg. What is the implication of this size range?

  • High protein diet has consequences for the digestive tract (incl. reduced ceacum).

  • Carnivory, omnivory, and herbivory.


Carnivore evolution l.jpg
Carnivore Evolution and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • First fossil carnivore dates to the late Cretaceous: Cimolestes.

  • Cimolestes is ancestral to both modern carnivores and the creodonts.

  • Creodonts lasted to the Miocene.


Cimolestes cretaceous ancestral to creodonts l.jpg
Cimolestes and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores. (Cretaceous): ancestral to creodonts?


Oxyaena creodont carnassial is formed by m 1 2 and m 2 3 l.jpg
Oxyaena (Creodont): carnassial is formed by m and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores. 1-2 and m2-3.


Sinopa eocene creodont w m 2 m 3 carnassials l.jpg
Sinopa and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores. , Eocene creodont w/ M2-m3 carnassials.


Carnivore evolution34 l.jpg
Carnivore Evolution and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • 2 lineages of early modern carnivores

    • Viverravidae

    • Miacidae

  • Both had P4/M1 carnassials.

  • Both are from the early Eocene.

  • Centrale, scaphoid, and lunar were not fused.


Carnivore evolution35 l.jpg
Carnivore Evolution and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • Canids, felids, ursids, viverrids, and mustelids appear by the Oligocene.

  • Radiation of carnivores mirrors adaptive radiation of vegetation and potential prey items.

  • Earliest pinnipeds (enaliarctids) date to the late Oligocene.


Felimormia felidae l.jpg
Felimormia: Felidae and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

  • Worldwide dist’n except Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Japan, Oceanic Islands, and Poles.

  • 36 species.

  • All have shortened rostrum.

    • What are the consequences of this in terms of olfaction? Bite strength?


A felid b canid l.jpg
A) felid and importance of primary chewing muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores. B) canid



Feliformia felidae l.jpg
Feliformia: Felidae Is this an allometric effect?

  • Felids kill via cervical dislocation, or suffocation.

  • Note extreme reduction in non-essential dentition.



Feliformia felidae46 l.jpg
Feliformia: Felidae Is this an allometric effect?

  • Size ranges from 2kg to 300kg.

  • Hyoid apparatus is cartilaginous - resulting in ability to roar (purr in fifi).

  • Claws retractile - except cheetah.

  • Semi-arboreal.

  • Papilla on tongue are angled backwards.

  • Hunting & Social strategies?


Feliformia hyaenidae l.jpg
Feliformia: Hyaenidae Is this an allometric effect?

  • Old world, large carnivores to 80kg.

  • 4 genera and 4 species.

  • Are both effective predators and scavengers.

  • Feldhammer asserts scavenging may reduce competition between other carnivores and hyaenids. In Serengetti, most cats scavenge from hyaenids.


Feliformia hyaenidae48 l.jpg
Feliformia: Hyaenidae Is this an allometric effect?

  • Can regurgitate undigestable items.

  • Digitigrade w/ nonretractile claws.

  • Fore-limb dominance is unusual. Why?

  • Protrusable anal scent glands.

  • Lack a baculum.

  • Spotted Females have pseudopenis. Why? Also, females > males. Laughing vocalizations.???



Spotted hyaena utr l.jpg
Spotted Hyaena utr Is this an allometric effect?


Feliformia hyaenidae52 l.jpg
Feliformia: Hyaenidae Is this an allometric effect?

  • Crocuta crocuta - spotted hyaena is largest.

  • Hyaena hyaena - striped hyaena.

  • Parahyaena brunnea - brown hyaena

  • Proteles cristatus - Aardwolf


Feliformia herpestidae l.jpg
Feliformia: Herpestidae Is this an allometric effect?

  • Old world: 18 genera and 37 species of mongooses.

  • Recently separated from viverids..

  • Size varies from 0.3kg to 5kg.

  • Feeding generalists.

  • Solitary - social. Terrestrial - semiarboreal.

  • Herpestes javanicus introduced to Hawaii.


Egyptian mongoose herpestes ichneumon l.jpg
Egyptian mongoose: Is this an allometric effect?Herpestes ichneumon.


Feliformia viverridae l.jpg
Feliformia: Viverridae Is this an allometric effect?

  • 20 genera and 34 species of Civets and genets.

  • Old world.

  • Only mammalian carnivore on Madagascar.

  • Wide variety of feeding styles: Frugivorous - omnivorous - carnivorous.

  • Peri-anal gland produces ‘civet. Civet uses this for scent marking, we use it for perfume.



Genetta genetta small spotted genet l.jpg
Genetta genetta of the families.: Small spotted genet.


Caniformia canidae l.jpg
Caniformia: Canidae of the families.

  • 13 genera and 33 species of ‘dogs,’ in new and old worlds.

  • Dingo (Canis lupus dingo) was introduced to Australia and New Guinea about 4000 years ago.

  • Size varies from 1kg in Fenec to 80kg grey wolf.

  • Tend to be open, 2d hunters.


Caniformia canidae68 l.jpg
Caniformia: Canidae of the families.

  • Long limbs, nonretractile claws.

  • Long rostrum = good olfaction.

  • Oldest fossil dates to oligocene of NA: Hesperocyon.

  • Problems w/ taxonomy of ‘red wolf’.


Canis latrans l.jpg
Canis latrans of the families.


Caniformia mustelidae l.jpg
Caniformia: Mustelidae of the families.

  • 25 genera and 65 species of badgers, weasels, skunks, wolverine, and otters.

  • Primarily northern hemisphere.

  • Exclusively carnivorous. High energy diet goes along w/ northern distribution and high sa/v ratio.

  • Long bodies, short limbs. 30g Mustela nivalis to 55kg Gulo gulo.


Caniformia mustelidae71 l.jpg
Caniformia: Mustelidae of the families.

  • Anal scent glands - think skunk.

  • Monestrous, some have induced ovulation, some have delayed implantation.


Taxidae taxus l.jpg
Taxidae taxus of the families.


Meles meles l.jpg
Meles meles of the families.


Zorilla african mustelid l.jpg
Zorilla of the families.: African mustelid.


Note skull profiles l.jpg
Note skull profiles. of the families.


Caniformia procyonidae l.jpg
Caniformia: Procyonidae of the families.

  • 6 genera and 18 species restricted to new world.

  • 1kg ringtail cat Bassariscus astutus to 18kg racoons.

  • Sexual dimorphism.

  • Kinkajou Potos flavus has prehensile tail. Kinkajou skulls and teeth follow.



Procyon lack of allisphenoid canal l.jpg
Procyon: of the families. lack of allisphenoid canal


Procyon lotor l.jpg
Procyon lotor of the families.


Procyon lotor88 l.jpg
Procyon lotor of the families.


Procyon lotor carnassials l.jpg
Procyon lotor: of the families.carnassials?


Nyctereutes procyanoides l.jpg
Nyctereutes procyanoides. of the families.


Caniformia ursidae l.jpg
Caniformia: Ursidae of the families.

  • Historically: N. America, Andes of S. America, Eurasia, Atlas Mts. of N. Africa, in Arctic to tropical forests.

  • 6 genera and 19 species (including greater and lesser pandas).

  • 5kg lesser panda to 800kg grizzly.

  • Sexual dimorphism is 20% in monogamous forms, and 100% in polygamous forms.



Caniformia ursidae98 l.jpg
Caniformia: Ursidae of the families.

  • Only polar bears are strict carnivores.

  • Bears do not hibernate.

  • Grizzly bears once occurred in Mexico!


Caniformia pinnipedia l.jpg
Caniformia: Pinnipedia of the families.

  • Pinnipeds are not entirely aquatic: they haul out for reproduction and to rest.

  • Morphologically similar because of constraints of aquatic and terrestrial life styles.

  • Phocids

  • Otariids

  • Odobenids


Caniformia pinnipedia101 l.jpg
Caniformia: Pinnipedia of the families.

  • Fusiform

  • Genetalia are tucked away as in cetaceans.

  • Subcutaneous fat: energy storage, insulation, and laminar flow.

  • Propulsion by forelimbs in otariids and odobenids - by hindlimbs in phocids.



Caniformia pinnipedia103 l.jpg
Caniformia: Pinnipedia column?

  • Dentition usually tends to homodonty. Why?

  • There are exceptions: Crab eater seals Lobodon carcinophagus. (Crab eater seals actually eat krill which they filter from the water).



Lobodon carcinophagus l.jpg
Lobodon carcinophagus and crab eater seal.


Caniformia pinnipedia106 l.jpg
Caniformia: Pinnipedia and crab eater seal.

  • Curvature of eye enhances visionunder water, but poor vision on land. Have Tapetum lucida.

  • Good hearing under water to locate prey.

  • Diving adaptations: Bradycardia, blood shunting, increased hemoglobin + myoglobin.


Odobenidae l.jpg
Odobenidae and crab eater seal.

  • Monotypic. Includes only the walrus Odobenus rosmarus.

  • Dist’n is circumpolar in arctic.

  • Mass to 1600kg. Sexual dimorphism.

  • Blubber layer to 15cm

  • Like otariids, ventral surface of flippers is naked, and nails on 1st and 5th digits of hind flippers are rudimentary.


Odobenidae108 l.jpg
Odobenidae and crab eater seal.

  • Tusks in males and females: enlarged canines.

  • Tusks lack enamel.

  • Tusks are used in aggressive encounters, establishing dominance heirarchies, for feeding, locomotion, breaking through ice.


Otariidae l.jpg
Otariidae and crab eater seal.

  • These are the eared seals. Includes fur seals and sea lions.

  • Marine only, in subpolar, temperate, or coastal waters.

  • 7 genera and 14 species.

  • Otariinae are the sea lions and have blunt noses and little underfur.

  • Arctocephalinae have pointed noses and lots of underfur.


Otariidae114 l.jpg
Otariidae and crab eater seal.

  • Feed on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods.

  • Gregarious - may occur in groups containing up to a million individuals.

  • Breed on land. Males are polygynous and defend territories with 3 to 40 females.

  • Most exhibit delayed implantation.


Phocidae l.jpg
Phocidae and crab eater seal.

  • True seals.

  • 10 genera and 19 species, in both polar and subpolar water.

  • 2 subfamilies:

    • Phocinae of N. hemisphere have well-developed claws on all flippers.

    • Monachinae includes monk seals, elephant seals, and antarctic seals - reduced claws on hind flippers.


Phoca vitulina l.jpg
Phoca vitulina and crab eater seal.


Phocidae119 l.jpg
Phocidae and crab eater seal.

  • Mass varies from 35kg to 3700kg.

  • Generally lack underfur.

  • Cheek teeth are multicusped.

  • Not gregarious and do not form large breeding colonies.

  • Breed on the ice: note position of rear flippers and limited terrestrial locomotor abilities.


Phocidae120 l.jpg
Phocidae and crab eater seal.

  • Delayed implantation.

  • Dive deeper and stay down longer than otariids.


ad