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Bipolar Disorder. For BIO 443: Drugs and Disease Presented by: Abby Normal. Bipolar Disorder … . Also known as Manic Depression Results in pathological mood swings from mania to depression These mood swings occur spontaneously. Manic Phase. Characterized by Hyperactivity

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bipolar disorder

Bipolar Disorder

For BIO 443: Drugs and Disease

Presented by: Abby Normal

bipolar disorder1
Bipolar Disorder …
  • Also known as Manic Depression
  • Results in pathological mood swings from mania to depression
  • These mood swings occur spontaneously
manic phase
Manic Phase
  • Characterized by
    • Hyperactivity
    • Over-involvement
    • Inflated self-esteem
    • Easily distracted
    • Little need for sleep
  • Hypomania
    • Less severe
    • Does not cause significant distress
depressive phase
Depressive Phase
  • Characterized by
    • Sluggishness
    • Loss of self-esteem
    • Withdrawal
    • Sadness
    • Excess need for sleep
    • Risk of suicide
epidemiology
Epidemiology
  • Overall affects men and women equally
  • Affects about 1% of adults in the US
  • Usually appears between 15-25 years
  • No difference among racial groups
types of bipolar disorder
Types of Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar I
    • More time in depressed state
    • Long periods of normality
  • Bipolar II
    • Long episodes of depression, occasional hypomania
    • Virtually no time of wellness
types of bipolar disorder1
Types of Bipolar Disorder
  • Cyclothymia
    • Many episodes of hypomania
    • Occasional mild depression
  • Mixed states
    • Signs of depression and mania at same time
  • Rapid cycling
    • Many cycles of mania and depression each year
    • Four or more episodes a year
childhood onset bipolar disorder
Childhood Onset Bipolar Disorder
  • Affects those younger than age 15
  • Often involves mixed episodes
  • Extreme amounts of cycling – many times a day
  • Bipolar is more severe when present in children and harder to treat
genetics
Genetics
  • Environment can trigger it and affect the severity of the disorder
  • No single genetic basis
  • Most likely complex genetic disorder
  • One possibility … inherited variation in serotonin transporter gene may play a role
serotonin
Serotonin
  • Low levels can set off impulsive and aggressive behaviors, depression
  • Low levels can also lead to inability to handle powerful emotions
pet scan for serotonin
Pet Scan for serotonin

Person in depressive episode Healthy individual

treatments
Treatments
  • Older Mood Stabilizers
    • Lithium
    • Valproic Acid
  • New Mood Stabilizers
    • Lamictal
    • Neurotonin
    • Topamax
old mood stabilizers
Old Mood Stabilizers
  • Have been shown to reduce mania and slow cycling
  • Often require blood levels frequently for monitoring
  • Many side effects
    • Nausea, vomiting
    • Weight gain or loss
    • Acne problems
    • Hair loss
    • Affects balance
lithium and valproic acid
Lithium and Valproic Acid
  • Slow action suggest that they may regulate gene expression
  • Thought to inhibit protein kinase C which regulates neurohormonal release
  • Interferes with the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine
new mood stabilizers
New Mood Stabilizers
  • Have been shown to be effective in adults
  • Effects are not known in children yet
  • Mechanisms are unknown
  • Effects are quicker
  • Side effects appear less
  • May have long term side effects that are not known of yet
future
Future?
  • Researchers believe they are coming closer to finding a genetic link and mechanism of the disorder
  • This could lead to better drugs that would act specifically for bipolar disorder
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