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Biomes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Biomes. Biome. a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community. 2 Types of Biomes. Terrestrial (land) Biomes Aquatic (water) Biomes marine (salt water) freshwater biomes. 6 Major Terrestrial (Land) Biomes.

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Biomes' - daniel_millan

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Biome l.jpg

  • a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community

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2 Types of Biomes

  • Terrestrial (land) Biomes

  • Aquatic (water) Biomes

    • marine (salt water)

    • freshwater biomes

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6 Major Terrestrial (Land) Biomes

  • terrestrial biomes are defined by their latitude, altitude, and precipitation

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Terrestrial Biomes

  • tundra

  • taiga

  • dessert

  • grasslands

  • temperate forest

  • tropical rain forest

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  • treeless area around the poles

  • temperatures rise above freezing only for very short periods of time, about 12 cm precipitation annually

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  • soil is lacking in nutrients; topsoil is thin -little decay occurs

  • soil supports only shallow-rooted grasses and small plants

  • short growing season-limiting factor for life

  • contains permafrost - layer of permanently frozen ground

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  • called northern conifer forest

  • climate is harsh - long, severe winters, short, mild summers, 35-40 cm precipitation annually

  • permafrost is usually absent

  • found in Canada, Northern Europe, Asia

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  • lichens, mosses, grasses, dwarf shrubs, cushion plants, mosquitoes, other biting insects, lemming, weasels, arctic foxes, snowshoe hares, snowy owls, hawks, musk-oxen, caribou, reindeer

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  • topsoil is acidic and poor in minerals

  • Example Organisms: mixed pine, fir, hemlock, & spruce trees, more large species of animals- caribou, moose, lynx

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  • Driest of the biomes, less than 25 cm of precipitation annually

  • Located south of the taiga

  • Atacama Desert in Chile – world’s driest place

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  • an arid region with sparse to almost nonexistent plant life

  • desert plants sometimes have spines, thorns, or poisons that act to discourage herbivores

  • example organisms - shrub, mesquite trees, cacti, kangaroo rat, pronghorn antelopes, foxes, coyotes, hawks, owls, roadrunners, snakes, lizards, scorpions

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  • receives between 25 and 75 cm of precipitation annually

  • soils have considerable humus content

  • usually experience a dry season where insufficient water exists to support forests

  • example organisms - more than 100 different species per acre, large herds of grazing animals, bison, buffalo, wolves, coyotes, prairie dogs, foxes, ferrets, birds, insects, reptiles, tortoises, lizards, snakes

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  • occupies more area than any other terrestrial biome


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Temperate Forest plants

  • soil consists of top layer rich in humus and a deeper layer of clay

  • example organisms - squirrels, mice, rabbits, birds, black bears, deer, salamanders, opossums

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Temperate Forest plants

  • precipitation ranges from 70-150 cm annually

  • deciduous forests - dominated by broad-leaved hardwood trees that lose their foliage annually (deciduous)

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Tropical Rain Forest plants

  • most biologically diverse of the terrestrial biomes, located in the equatorial regions around the world

  • uniformly warm (25oC) , wet weather dominated by lush plant growth, annual rainfall is at least 200cm up to 400 cm, which much of is retained and recycled by the heavy canopy of leaves

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Tropical Rain Forest plants

  • most organisms live in the trees

  • more species of reptiles, amphibians, and birds are found here than any other terrestrial biome

  • 3 million species of insects in the tropical rain forest, butterflies, gorillas, cougars

  • Nutrients from decay must be absorbed quickly. Why?

Due the large amount of rain

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Precipitation Amounts plants

1 cm = 0.4 inches

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Marine Biomes plants

  • oceans contain the largest amount of biomass (living material) of any biome on Earth

  • most of this biomass is plankton - microscopic organisms that float in the layers of the photic zone

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Water Zones plants

  • photic zone - more shallow, sunlit zone

  • aphotic zone - deeper water that never receives sunlight

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Mixed Waters plants

  • all waters flow to a sea/ocean

  • estuary – coastal body of water partially surrounded by land where saltwater and freshwater mix

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Tides plants

  • caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon – twice a day

  • intertidal zone – area between the high and low tide lines

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Photic Zone plants

  • rainfall washes nutrients from land into the waters

  • high in nutrients and abundant in life

  • plankton – small organisms that live in waters of the photic zone – base of all aquatic food chains

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Aphotic Zone plants

  • intense pressure

  • no light

  • animals are adapted for darkness and scarcity of food

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Freshwater Biome plants

  • ponds, rivers, and lakes

  • temperature varies with depth – abiotic factor that limits the kind of organisms that can survive in a deep lake

  • light also is a limiting abiotic factor