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Biofuels. Potential for biomass use. Total Global Primary Energy Supply (in ExaJoules (10 18 )) 2004 470 EJ 2030 670 EJ 2050 850 EJ Actual use of biomass 2004 49 EJ Potential of biomass Yearly global photosynthesis ~ 4000 EJ

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potential for biomass use
Potential for biomass use
  • Total Global Primary Energy Supply(in ExaJoules (1018))

2004 470 EJ

2030 670 EJ

2050 850 EJ

  • Actual use of biomass

2004 49 EJ

  • Potential of biomass

Yearly global photosynthesis ~ 4000 EJ

Technical potential raw biomass (2050) 450 EJ

Economical potential raw biomass (2050) 150 EJ

Economical potential liquid biofuel (2050) 53 EJ

potential for biofuel production
Potential for biofuel production
  • Current transport fuels needs: 77 EJ
  • BiofuelsEthanol (2004) 0.84 EJ 9.5 MhaBio diesel (2003) 0.06 EJ 0.5 Mha
  • 856 Mha would be required to meet current fuel needs
land suitable for agricultural production
Land suitable for agricultural production
  • 856 Mha would be required to meet current fuel needs
  • Land suitable for agriculture *Total used 2004 1540 Mha Industrialised countries 2004 636 Mha Developing countries 2004 904 Mha Total suitable 4188 Mha Industrialised countries 1406 Mha Developing countries 2782 Mha

* excludes protected areas and closed forests and is crop specific, the total land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for biofuel crops.

impacts of biofuels
Rainfed agriculture:

Pressure on land resources

Irrigated agriculture:

Pressure on water resources

Impacts of biofuels
slide10

[1] Energy density: Bio-diesel 35 MJ/l Ethanol 20 MJ/l

[2]FAO (2006b). Starch market adds value to cassava, on-line available at:http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0610sp1.htm.

Global Petroleum Club, Energy Content of Biofuel, on-line available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_content_of_Biofuel.

Marris, E. (2006). Drink the best and drive the rest. Nature, 444, 670–672, 7 December.

USDA (2006). The Economic Feasibility of Ethanol Production from Sugar in the United States, on-line available at: http://www.usda.gov/oce/EthanolSugarFeasibilityReport3.pdf.

[3]On the assumption of 50% irrigation efficiency

a few numbers
A few numbers
  • Water needed to produce:
    • 1 kilo of wheat: 1 000 litres
    • 1 kilo of meat (beef): 15 000 litres
  • Daily water requirements per person:
    • Drinking: 2-3 litres
    • Domestic needs: 20–300 litres
    • Food: 2 000-3 000 litres
  • with 2 500 litres of water, we can produce:
    • food for one person for one day
    • 1 litre of biofuel
biofuel and water use 2005
Biofuel and water use (2005)

Source: de Fraiture, IWMI, 2007

projections for water demand 2030
Projections for water demand - 2030

Source: de Fraiture, IWMI, 2007

nas report on water and biofuels in the united states 2007
NAS report on water and biofuels in the United States (2007):
  • Currently, biofuels are a marginal additional stress on water supplies at the regional to local scale. However, significant acceleration of biofuels production could cause much greater water quantity problems depending on where the crops are grown. Growing biofuel crops in areas requiring additional irrigation water from already depleted aquifers is a major concern.
  • The growth of biofuels in the United States has probably already affected water quality because of the large amount of N and P required to produce corn. If projected future increases in the use of corn for ethanol production do occur, the increase in harm to water quality could be considerable.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • World water system already under heavy stress due to agriculture and other uses
  • Agriculture main water user (70%)
  • Future water demand for agriculture in the rise
  • Climate change likely to result in increased demand for irrigated water
  • Bioenergy likely to add to pressure on water:
    • depending on type of crop
    • depending on farming system: rainfed/irrigated
    • depending on region
  • China, India, already facing serious water constraints
  • Keep an eye on sugarcane
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