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Biofuels. Potential for biomass use. Total Global Primary Energy Supply (in ExaJoules (10 18 )) 2004470 EJ 2030670 EJ 2050850 EJ Actual use of biomass 200449 EJ Potential of biomass Yearly global photosynthesis ~ 4000 EJ

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Biofuels

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Biofuels l.jpg

Biofuels


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Potential for biomass use

  • Total Global Primary Energy Supply(in ExaJoules (1018))

    2004470 EJ

    2030670 EJ

    2050850 EJ

  • Actual use of biomass

    200449 EJ

  • Potential of biomass

    Yearly global photosynthesis ~ 4000 EJ

    Technical potential raw biomass (2050) 450 EJ

    Economical potential raw biomass(2050) 150 EJ

    Economical potential liquid biofuel(2050) 53 EJ


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Potential for biofuel production

  • Current transport fuels needs: 77 EJ

  • BiofuelsEthanol(2004)0.84 EJ 9.5 MhaBio diesel(2003)0.06 EJ 0.5 Mha

  • 856 Mha would be required to meet current fuel needs


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Land suitable for agricultural production

  • 856 Mha would be required to meet current fuel needs

  • Land suitable for agriculture *Total used20041540 MhaIndustrialised countries2004 636 MhaDeveloping countries 2004 904 Mha Total suitable4188 MhaIndustrialised countries 1406 MhaDeveloping countries 2782 Mha

* excludes protected areas and closed forests and is crop specific, the total land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for biofuel crops.


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Most important bio-fuel crops


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Rainfed agriculture:

Pressure on land resources

Irrigated agriculture:

Pressure on water resources

Impacts of biofuels


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What is the potential of the natural land resources base ?

Sugar cane

Sugar beet


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What is the potential of the natural land resources base ?

Cassava

Maize


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Oilpalm

Rapeseed

Soybean

What is the potential of the natural land resources base ?


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[1] Energy density: Bio-diesel 35 MJ/l Ethanol 20 MJ/l

[2]FAO (2006b). Starch market adds value to cassava, on-line available at:http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0610sp1.htm.

Global Petroleum Club, Energy Content of Biofuel, on-line available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_content_of_Biofuel.

Marris, E. (2006). Drink the best and drive the rest. Nature, 444, 670–672, 7 December.

USDA (2006). The Economic Feasibility of Ethanol Production from Sugar in the United States, on-line available at: http://www.usda.gov/oce/EthanolSugarFeasibilityReport3.pdf.

[3]On the assumption of 50% irrigation efficiency


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A few numbers

  • Water needed to produce:

    • 1 kilo of wheat: 1 000 litres

    • 1 kilo of meat (beef): 15 000 litres

  • Daily water requirements per person:

    • Drinking: 2-3 litres

    • Domestic needs: 20–300 litres

    • Food: 2 000-3 000 litres

  • with 2 500 litres of water, we can produce:

    • food for one person for one day

    • 1 litre of biofuel


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What is the potential of the natural water resources base ?


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What is the potential of the natural water resource base ?


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Biofuel and water use (2005)

Source: de Fraiture, IWMI, 2007


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Projections for water demand - 2030

Source: de Fraiture, IWMI, 2007


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NAS report on water and biofuels in the United States (2007):

  • Currently, biofuels are a marginal additional stress on water supplies at the regional to local scale. However, significant acceleration of biofuels production could cause much greater water quantity problems depending on where the crops are grown. Growing biofuel crops in areas requiring additional irrigation water from already depleted aquifers is a major concern.

  • The growth of biofuels in the United States has probably already affected water quality because of the large amount of N and P required to produce corn. If projected future increases in the use of corn for ethanol production do occur, the increase in harm to water quality could be considerable.


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Conclusions

  • World water system already under heavy stress due to agriculture and other uses

  • Agriculture main water user (70%)

  • Future water demand for agriculture in the rise

  • Climate change likely to result in increased demand for irrigated water

  • Bioenergy likely to add to pressure on water:

    • depending on type of crop

    • depending on farming system: rainfed/irrigated

    • depending on region

  • China, India, already facing serious water constraints

  • Keep an eye on sugarcane


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