Answering questions
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Answering Questions. The responsibilities of the Persuasive speaker:. To say something worth hearing (sound information). To say something that can be heard (clear organization). To say something that will be heard (audience engagement).

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Answering Questions

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Answering questions

Answering Questions


The responsibilities of the persuasive speaker

The responsibilities of the Persuasive speaker:

To say something worth hearing (sound information).

To say something that can be heard (clear organization).

To say something that will be heard (audience engagement).

To answer all the audience's reasonable doubts & objections.

Lect 9M


The 3 big questions your audience is always going to ask

The 3 Big Questions your audience is always going to ask.

  • What's the problem? Why do we need to change?

  • What's the plan? What exactly do we need to do?

  • Is it practical? Will the plan solve the problem? What other costs & benefits does it have?

Lect 9M


The 3 basic answers you can give in reply

The 3 Basic Answers you can give in reply.

  • Logos

  • Ethos

  • Pathos

Lect 9M


Answering questions

...on the reasons.

LOGOS

...on you.

ETHOS

...on their feelings.

PATHOS

To answer their questions, your audience can rely...

Lect 9M


Answering questions

Ethos

Which hat will you wear?

Lect 9M


Are appeals to emotion pathos ethical

Are appeals to emotion (pathos) ethical?

Studies of brain-damaged patients show that people without emotions have severe deficiencies in social and practical decision-making.

Dr. Antonio Damasio

Lect 9M


Answering questions

School A

Lower cost

More active social life

Better career counseling

Better study abroad

Better foreign languages

Nicer campus

Outstanding research faculty

Excellent alumni network

More prestigious

Bigger

More diverse

More volunteerism

Better athletic facilities

School B

Closer to home

Better financial aid

Better extracurricular activities

Good major

Friends going there

Outstanding teaching faculty

Recommended by teachers

Smaller

Early admission

Nicer dorms

Higher graduation rates

Better football team

Fewer required courses

Which one feels right?!

Lect 9M


Basic methods for establishing logos ethos pathos

Ethos (credibility) Expert testimony

Pathos (emotion) Examples

Logos (reasoning) Statistics

Basic methods for establishing logos, ethos, & pathos.

Type of appeal Type of evidence

Lect 9M


For example

Example

US Environmental Protection Agency

For example...

In my speech, to demonstrate one Problem with driving, I used:

Statistics

Expert

Lect 9M


Summary of all methods

Logos

Statistics

Specific instances

Principle

Causal

Analogical

Ethos

Expert testimony

Personal competence

Common ground

Deliver with conviction

Summary of all methods.

Pathos

  • Examples

  • Emotional language

  • Deliver with conviction

Lect 9M


Answering questions

The Persuasion analysis questions.

Let's try it out

13. Identify two distinct methods the speaker uses in the body of the speech to enhance his/her credibility appeals (ethos).

14. Identify two distinct methods of reasoning the speaker uses in the body of the speech to enhance his/her logical appeals (logos).

15. Identify two distinct methods the speaker uses in the body of the speech to enhance his/her emotional appeals (pathos).

[1-8. As for the Informative Speech.]

9. What specific claim(s) does the speaker make on the Problem (Need) Issue? How does the speaker support his/her claim(s)?

10. What specific actions is the speaker calling for in his/her claims on the Plan Issue? How does the speaker support his/her claim that the Plan will solve the Problem?

11. What specific claim(s) does the speaker make on the Practicality Issue? How does the speaker support his/her claim(s)? Identify one objection to Practicality that the audience is likely to make, which the speaker has not dealt with in the speech.

12. What is the least credible Source cited by the speaker? Why isn't it credible?

13. Identify two distinct methods the speaker uses in the body of the speech to enhance his/her credibility appeals (ethos).

14. Identify two distinct methods of reasoning the speaker uses in the body of the speech to enhance his/her logical appeals (logos).

15. Identify two distinct methods the speaker uses in the body of the speech to enhance his/her emotional appeals (pathos).

16. Identify and evaluate one use of expert testimony in the speech.

17. Identify and evaluate one use of statistics in the speech.

Identify and evaluate one use of an example in the speech.

19. What is the one positive comment about the speech that this speaker most needs to hear now? (Not including delivery.)

20. What is the one negative comment about the speech that this speaker most needs to hear now? (Not including delivery.)

Lect 9M


How to answer exam questions

Use course concept!

(two of these)

Ethos

  • Expert testimony

  • Personal competence

  • Common ground

  • Deliver with conviction

How to answer exam questions.

"13. Identify two distinct methods the speaker uses in the body of the speech to enhance his/her credibility appeals (ethos)."

Refer to a specific passage!

Explain its relevance!

Lect 9M


Rule of thumb for creating your policy persuasive speech

Ethos

Logos

Pathos

Rule of thumb for creating your policy persuasive speech.

  • In general, for every claim you make about Problem, Plan, or Practicality you should use at least

  • one set of statistics

  • one piece of expert testimony

  • one vivid example

Lect 9M


Answering questions

Continue to develop your appeals by imagining your audience's questions and answering them in advance.

"Antonio Damasio says emotion is good!"

So what? Who is he, anyhow?

"Dr. Antonio Damasio, Director of the Brain & Creativity Institute at the University of Southern California, author of three books and numerous articles on the neurology of emotions, has pointed out that...."

Ethos

Lect 9M


Continuing to answer the audience s questions

Continuing to answer the audience's questions...

Ethos: Expert testimony

So what? Who is that, anyhow?

Logos: Statistics

So what? How much is that, really?

Pathos: Example

What happened? Fill me in on the details!

Lect 9M


Threes

What's the problem?

What's your plan?

Is it practical?

Logos

Ethos

Pathos

Threes

Three questions

Three answers

  • Statistics

  • Experts

  • Examples

Three forms of support

Lect 9M


Midterm reminders

Midterm reminders

  • Required outside speech observation

  • Bonus possibilities

    • Opportunities to develop course skills outside the classroom setting

    • See WebCT "Regular & Bonus Assignments " for a complete list

    • Most due no later than Friday, 25 April (end of 14th week)

    • Note: Classroom plus bonus points capped at 230 (110%).

Lect 9M


Coming up

Coming up

Wednesday: Lab--practice what you've learned.

Friday: Lecture: Further exam prep; the presidential campaign

BREAK!

Monday after break: Researching the Persuasive Speech assignment due (WebCT)

Wednesday after break: Test #2.

Lect 9M


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