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Acrylamide in Bread. Routes for intervention?. Gareth Edwards. What is Bread?. Huge differences between types of bread across EU countries: Mainly white wheat breads in UK and France Dark rye breads in Scandinavia and Central Europe Mixed base in Germany: predominantly wholegrain products

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Acrylamide in bread l.jpg

Acrylamide in Bread

Routes for intervention?

Gareth Edwards


What is bread l.jpg
What is Bread?

  • Huge differences between types of bread across EU countries:

    • Mainly white wheat breads in UK and France

    • Dark rye breads in Scandinavia and Central Europe

    • Mixed base in Germany: predominantly wholegrain products

    • Wide range of sizes, shapes and baking conditions


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Reaction Parameters

  • Predominantly reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars

    • Asparagine level is usually the controlling factor

    • Influence of raising agents, e.g., Ammonium bicarbonate?

  • High temperature and low moisture promote formation in crust but not in crumb.


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Fermentation

  • Yeast fermentation of dough can help to reduce asparagine levels by >90% (depending on proof time and yeast type)

  • Reduced asparagine levels are closely translated into lower acrylamide formation


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Distribution of Acrylamide

  • Highest AA concentration in the outermost layer of the crust

  • Moderate concentrations in lower part of crust

  • Very low levels in the crumb

  • “Lidding” of the loaf during baking can reduce AA formation by increasing moisture in the surrounding atmosphere, but

  • Crust quality is changed, which affects product characteristics and consumer acceptance


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Toasting

  • Significant increase in AA levels by toasting, with clear time/temperature dependence

  • Bread should be toasted to light colours, and burning should be avoided



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Risk/Benefit?

  • Lower protein (asparagine) content of bread is associated with lower acrylamide.

  • Choice between white bread with low AA levels and wholegrain breads with comparatively higher AA levels but additional nutritional benefits, e.g., more fibre

  • Overall, levels of Acrylamide (AA) in bread are at the lower end of the range


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