A Decade of Progress in Global Immunisation. Sir Gustav Nossal Department of Pathology The University of Melbourne Australia. IVI 10th Anniversary International Symposium, Seoul, Korea, April 2, 2008. A Decade of the International Vaccine Institute.
A Decade of Progress in Global Immunisation
Sir Gustav Nossal
Department of Pathology
The University of Melbourne
IVI 10th Anniversary International Symposium,
Seoul, Korea, April 2, 2008
A Decade of the International Vaccine Institute
– Critical analyses of disease burden.
– Cost-benefit analyses and priority setting.
– Early clinical trials of safety and immunogenicity.
– Controlled trials of vaccine efficacy.
– Large scale demonstration projects.
What Has Allowed IVI To Be So Successful?
How To Thrive Without The Big Three?
– Diarrheal Diseases
– Acute Respiratory Infections
– Mosquito-Borne Viral Diseases
– Mucosal Immunity
– Innate Immunity
– Better Adjuvants
Where Does The IVI Fit In?
The Moral Imperative of Poverty Reduction
“Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. There’s no doubt in my mind that the whole world hangs in the balance.”
U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall, 1948, commenting on the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe which cost USA 4% of GDP for some years (today’s equivalent $500 billion/year).
“Make Poverty History”
Bono and Bob Geldof, July 2005
The Moral Imperative of Health
The Moral Imperative of Health (continued)
“There is absolutely no excuse for us to live on a planet where, at 10 cents per $100, millions of lives could be saved every year. It’s hard to understand why we kill people, but absolutely unthinkable how we let millions of people die when we stand by without understanding what is in our own interest and moral obligation.”
Jeffrey D. Sachs, Earth Institute, Columbia University, 2003.
2007World GDP $51 trillion; 10 cents/$100 = $51 billion2007U.S. Health Expenditure $2.2 trillion2007World Health Expenditure $5 trillion; 1% = $50 billion
The Moral Imperative of Communicable Diseases
Within health, the aid priorities should be:
Health Progress is Possible
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria
President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
Polio Eradication is Still Problematic
The Moral Imperative of
Acute Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis
The Moral Imperative of Diarrhoeal Diseases
The Moral Imperative of Vaccines Which
Prevent Viral Causes of Cancer
Other Vaccines of the Future
Progess of the GAVI Alliance 2000–2007
GAVI Alliance Challenges
International Finance Facility–Immunisation
Advanced Market Commitments (AMCS) for Vaccines
Progress with Specific Vaccines: African Meningitis
Progress with Specific Vaccines – Malaria
Progress with Specific Vaccines – Tuberculosis
–Gates Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery
–N.I.H. Vaccine Research Center (intramural) and Centers for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (extramural)
–International Aids Vaccine Initiative
–South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative
Progress with Specific Vaccines – HIV / AIDS (1)
Progress with Specific Vaccines – HIV / AIDS (2)
–Sanofi-Pasteur canarypox vector with HIV inserts, boost with Vaxgen gp120 (16,000 persons in Thailand).
–Merck on September 21, 2007, STOPPED its trial of adenovirus serotype 5 with gag, pol and nef expressed because of failure to prevent infection or to lower set point.
Progress with Specific Vaccines – HIV / AIDS (3)
Some Promising Strategies: