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The Private Pilot. Class 4 - Airports Air Traffic Control and Airspace. Objective: To study the FAA’s categorization of airspace and other operational regulations. Minimum Visibility and Cloud Clearances. Most Places, with a few exceptions: 3 Miles Visibility 1000 Feet Above the Clouds

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Minimum visibility and cloud clearances
Minimum Visibility and Cloud Clearances and other operational regulations.

Most Places, with a few exceptions:

3 Miles Visibility

1000 Feet Above the Clouds

500 Feet Below the Clouds

2000 Feet Horizontal From Clouds


Minimum safe altitudes
Minimum Safe Altitudes and other operational regulations.

FAR 91.119

Anywhere?

Congested?

Other than congested?


Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, no person may operate an aircraft below the following altitudes:(a) Anywhere. An altitude allowing, if a power unit fails, an emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface.


(b) Over congested areas. Over any congested area of a city, town, or settlement, or over any open air assembly of persons, an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet of the aircraft.


(c) Over other than congested areas. An altitude of 500 feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.


Airspace classification
Airspace Classification feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.

  • AIM 3-1-1

  • a. There are two categories of airspace or airspace areas:1. Regulatory (Class A, B, C, D and E airspace areas, restricted and prohibited areas); and2. Nonregulatory (military operations areas (MOAs), warning areas, alert areas, and controlled firing areas).


Airspace classification1
Airspace Classification feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.

  • b. Within these two categories, there are four types:1. Controlled,2. Uncontrolled,3. Special use, and4. Other airspace.


c. The categories and types of airspace are dictated by: feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.1. The complexity or density of aircraft movements,2. The nature of the operations conducted within the airspace,3. The level of safety required, and4. The national and public interest.


Towered v non towered airport
Towered v. Non Towered Airport feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.

  • UNV

  • UNControlled

  • Controlled


Class a
Class A feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.


3-2-2. Class A Airspace feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600, including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska; and designated international airspace beyond 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska within areas of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar coverage, and within which domestic procedures are applied.b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements. Unless otherwise authorized, all persons must operate their aircraft under IFR. (See 14 CFR Section 71.33 and 14 CFR Section 91.167 through 14 CFR Section 91.193.)c. Charts. Class A airspace is not specifically charted.


3-2-3. Class B Airspace feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. The configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that are so cleared receive separation services within the airspace. The cloud clearance requirement for VFR operations is "clear of clouds."b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements for VFR Operations. Regardless of weather conditions, an ATC clearance is required prior to operating within Class B airspace. Pilots should not request a clearance to operate within Class B airspace unless the requirements of 14 CFR Section 91.215 and 14 CFR Section 91.131 are met. Included among these requirements are:


Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, aircraft must be equipped with an operable two-way radio capable of communicating with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that Class B airspace.


2. No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at the following primary airports within Class B airspace unless the pilot-in-command holds at least a private pilot certificate:……3. No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at an airport within Class B airspace or operate a civil aircraft within Class B airspace unless:(a) The pilot-in-command holds at least a private pilot certificate; or(b) The aircraft is operated by a student pilot or recreational pilot who seeks private pilot certification and has met the requirements of 14 CFR Section 61.95.(Training on Specific Class B and Endorsed)


5. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each aircraft must be equipped as follows:(a) For IFR operations, an operable VOR or TACAN receiver; and(b) For all operations, a two-way radio capable of communications with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that area; and(c) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting equipment.NOTE-ATC may, upon notification, immediately authorize a deviation from the altitude reporting equipment requirement; however, a request for a deviation from the 4096 transponder equipment requirement must be submitted to the controlling ATC facility at least one hour before the proposed operation.


6. equipped as follows:Mode C Veil. The airspace within 30 nautical miles of an airport listed in Appendix D, Section 1 of 14 CFR Part 91.215(2) (generally primary airports within Class B airspace areas), from the surface upward to 10,000 feet MSL. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, aircraft operating within this airspace must be equipped with automatic pressure altitude reporting equipment having Mode C capability.However, an aircraft that was not originally certificated with an engine-driven electrical system or which has not subsequently been certified with a system installed may conduct operations within a Mode C veil provided the aircraft remains outside Class A, B or C airspace; and below the altitude of the ceiling of a Class B or Class C airspace area designated for an airport or 10,000 feet MSL, whichever is lower.


Appendix D to Part 91—Airports/Locations: Special Operating RestrictionsSection 1. Locations at which the requirements of §91.215(b)(2) apply.The requirements of §91.215(b)(2) apply below 10,000 feet above the surface within a 30-nautical-mile radius of each location in the following list:


An operable 4096-code transponder and Mode C encoding altimeter are required in A) Class E airspace below 10,000 feet MSL. B) Class D airspace. C) Class B airspace and within 30 miles of the Class B primary airport.


(Refer to figure 26, area 4.) The floor of Class B airspace overlying Hicks Airport (T67) north-northwest of Fort Worth Meacham Field is A) 4,000 feet MSL. B) 3,200 feet MSL. C) at the surface.


(Refer to figure 26, area 2.) The floor of Class B airspace at Addison Airport is A) 3,000 feet MSL. B) 3,100 feet MSL. C) at the surface.


Airspace visibility clouds class b 3 statute miles clear of clouds
Airspace Visibility Clouds at Addison Airport isClass B 3 statute miles Clear of Clouds.


Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, at Addison Airport isspecial VFR operations may be conducted :(1) With an ATC clearance;(2) Clear of clouds;(3) Except for helicopters, when flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile; and(4) Except for helicopters, between sunrise and sunset (or in Alaska, when the sun is 6 degrees or more below the horizon) unless—(i) The person being granted the ATC clearance meets the applicable requirements for instrument flight under part 61 of this chapter; and(ii) The aircraft is equipped as required in §91.205(d).


Appendix D to Part 91—Airports/Locations: Special Operating RestrictionsSection 3. Locations at which fixed-wing Special VFR operations are PROHIBITED.


Section 4. Locations at which solo student, sport, and recreational pilot activity is not permitted.Pursuant to §91.131(b)(2), solo student, sport, and recreational pilot operations are not permitted at any of the following airports.


(Refer to figure 26.) At which airports is fixed-wing Special VFR not authorized? A) Addison and Redbird. B) Dallas-Fort Worth International and Dallas Love Field. C) Fort Worth Meacham and Fort Worth Spinks.


3-2-4. Class C Airspace Special VFR not authorized?a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar approach control, and that have a certain number of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. Although the configuration of each Class C airspace area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of a 5 NM radius core surface area that extends from the surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, and a 10 NM radius shelf area that extends no lower than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation.


b. Charts. Class C airspace is charted on Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and Terminal Area Charts where appropriate.c. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements:1. Pilot Certification. No specific certification required.2. Equipment.(a) Two-way radio; and(b) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting equipment.


3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Requirements. Two-way radio communication must be established with the ATC facility providing ATC services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those communications while in Class C airspace. Pilots of arriving aircraft should contact the Class C airspace ATC facility on the publicized frequency and give their position, altitude, radar beacon code, destination, and request Class C service. Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the Class C airspace boundary to preclude entering Class C airspace before two-way radio communications are established.


NOTE- radio communication must be established with the ATC facility providing ATC services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those communications while in Class C airspace. Pilots of arriving aircraft should contact the Class C airspace ATC facility on the publicized frequency and give their position, altitude, radar beacon code, destination, and request Class C service. Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the Class C airspace boundary to preclude entering Class C airspace before two-way radio communications are established.1. If the controller responds to a radio call with, "(aircraft callsign) standby," radio communications have been established and the pilot can enter the Class C airspace.


2. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate provision of Class C services, the controller will inform the pilot to remain outside the Class C airspace until conditions permit the services to be provided.3. It is important to understand that if the controller responds to the initial radio call without using the aircraft identification, radio communications have not been established and the pilot may not enter the Class C airspace.


4. Though not requiring regulatory action, Class C airspace areas have a procedural Outer Area. Normally this area is 20 NM from the primary Class C airspace airport. Its vertical limit extends from the lower limits of radio/radar coverage up to the ceiling of the approach control's delegated airspace, excluding the Class C airspace itself, and other airspace as appropriate. (This outer area is not charted.)


5. Pilots approaching an airport with Class C service should be aware that if they descend below the base altitude of the 5 to 10 mile shelf during an instrument or visual approach, they may encounter nontransponder, VFR aircraft.EXAMPLE-1. [Aircraft callsign] "remain outside the Class Charlie airspace and standby."2. "Aircraft calling Dulles approach control, standby.”


4. Departures from: be aware that if they descend below the base altitude of the 5 to 10 mile shelf during an instrument or visual approach, they may encounter nontransponder, VFR aircraft.(a) A primary or satellite airport with an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established and maintained with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in Class C airspace.(b) A satellite airport without an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established as soon as practicable after departing with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class C airspace.


The normal radius of the outer area of Class C airspace is be aware that if they descend below the base altitude of the 5 to 10 mile shelf during an instrument or visual approach, they may encounter nontransponder, VFR aircraft. A) 20 nautical miles. B) 5 nautical miles. C) 15 nautical miles.


All operations within Class C airspace must be in be aware that if they descend below the base altitude of the 5 to 10 mile shelf during an instrument or visual approach, they may encounter nontransponder, VFR aircraft. A) accordance with instrument flight rules. B) compliance with ATC clearances and instructions. C) an aircraft equipped with a 4096-code transponder with Mode C encoding capability.


What minimum radio equipment is required for operation within Class C airspace? A) Two-way radio communications equipment and a 4096-code transponder. B) Two-way radio communications equipment, a 4096-code transponder, and an encoding altimeter. C) Two-way radio communications equipment, a 4096-code transponder, and DME.


Which initial action should a pilot take prior to entering Class C airspace? A) Contact the tower and request permission to enter. B) Contact approach control on the appropriate frequency. C) Contact the FSS for traffic advisories.


Two-way radio communication must be established with the Air Traffic Control facility having jurisdiction over the area prior to entering which class airspace? A) Class E. B) Class C. C) Class G.


The vertical limit of Class C airspace above the primary airport is normally A) 3,000 feet AGL. B) 4,000 feet AGL. C) 1,200 feet AGL.


Under what condition may an aircraft operate from a satellite airport within Class C airspace? A) The pilot must contact ATC as soon as practicable after takeoff. B) The pilot must file a flight plan prior to departure. C) The pilot must monitor ATC until clear of the Class C airspace.


(Refer to figure 24, area 3.) What is the floor of the Savannah Class C airspace at the shelf area (outer circle)? A) 1,700 feet MSL. B) 1,300 feet AGL. C) 1,300 feet MSL.


(Refer to figure 21, area 1.) What minimum radio equipment is required to land and take off at Norfolk International? A) Mode C transponder, omnireceiver, and DME. B) Mode C transponder and omnireceiver. C) Mode C transponder and two-way radio.


(Refer to figure 21, area 2.) The flag symbol at Lake Drummond represents a A) visual checkpoint used to identify position for initial callup to Norfolk Approach Control. B) compulsory reporting point for Norfolk Class C airspace. C) compulsory reporting point for Hampton Roads Airport.


Class c visibility and cloud clearance 3 miles 500 below 1000 above 2000 horizontal
Class C Visibility and Cloud Clearance: Drummond represents a3 Miles,500 Below1000 Above2000 Horizontal


CLASS D AIRSPACE Class D airspace generally extends from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. The configuration of Class D airspace will be tailored to meet the operational needs of the area.


Class D Visibility and Cloud Clearance: surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. The configuration of Class D airspace will be tailored to meet the operational needs of the area. 3 Miles, 1000 Foot Ceiling500 Below1000 Above2000 Horizontal


• Airspace is Class D - Only when there is an operating Control Tower.• Two way radio for landing and taking off• Non-Towered Satellite Airport, must contact tower as soon as PRACTICABLE after takeoff• Lateral dimensions are based on Instrument Approaches


A blue segmented circle on a Sectional Chart depicts which class airspace? A) Class B. B) Class C. C) Class D.


The lateral dimensions of Class D airspace are based on class airspace? A) the number of airports that lie within the Class D airspace. B) the instrument procedures for which the controlled airspace is established. C) 5 statute miles from the geographical center of the primary airport.


A non-tower satellite airport, within the same Class D airspace as that designated for the primary airport, requires radio communications be established and maintained with the A) associated Flight Service Station. B) satellite airport's UNICOM. C) primary airport's control tower.


(Refer to figure 26, area 4.) The airspace directly overlying Fort Worth Meacham is A) Class D airspace to 3,200 feet MSL. B) Class B airspace to 10,000 feet MSL. C) Class C airspace to 5,000 feet MSL.


CLASS E AIRSPACE Class E airspace is generally controlled airspace that is not designated A, B, C, or D. Except for 18,000 feet MSL, Class E airspace has no defined vertical limit, but rather it extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace.


Federal Airways are E airspace that is not designated A, B, C, or D. Except for 18,000 feet MSL, Class E airspace has no defined vertical limit, but rather it extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace. • Floors normally begin at 1200 AGL up to 17,900 Feet MSL• 4 Nautical Miles on either side of the Center Line


E for Airports : airspace that is not designated A, B, C, or D. Except for 18,000 feet MSL, Class E airspace has no defined vertical limit, but rather it extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace. Floors:• 700 Feet (Shaded, Non-precision Approaches)• Surface (Dashed Magenta Lines, Precision Approaches)


Class E: airspace that is not designated A, B, C, or D. Except for 18,000 feet MSL, Class E airspace has no defined vertical limit, but rather it extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace. Less than 10,000 feet MSL... 3 statute miles....... 500 feet below. 1,000 feet above. 2,000 feet horizontal At or above 10,000 feet MSL. 5 statute miles....... 1,000 feet below. 1,000 feet above. 1 statute mile horizontal.


Refer to figure 27, area 2.) The visibility and cloud clearance requirements to operate VFR during daylight hours over the town of Cooperstown between 1,200 feet AGL and 10,000 feet MSL are A) 1 mile and 1,000 feet above, 500 feet below, and 2,000 feet horizontally from clouds. B) 1 mile and clear of clouds. C) 3 miles and 1,000 feet above, 500 feet below, and 2,000 feet horizontally from clouds.


(Refer to figure 27, area 2.) The visibility and cloud clearance requirements to operate over the town of Cooperstown below 700 feet AGL are A) 3 miles and clear of clouds. B) 1 mile and 1,000 feet above, 500 feet below, and 2,000 feet horizontally from clouds. C) 1 mile and clear of clouds.


(Refer to figure 23, area 3.) The vertical limits of that portion of Class E airspace designated as a Federal Airway over Magee Airport are A) 7,500 feet MSL to 17,999 feet MSL. B) 700 feet MSL to 12,500 feet MSL. C) 1,200 feet AGL to 17,999 feet MSL.


(Refer to figure 27, area 1.) Identify the airspace over Lowe Airport. A) Class G airspace - surface up to but not including 1,200 feet AGL, Class E airspace - 1,200 feet AGL up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL. B) Class G airspace - surface up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL. C) Class G airspace - surface up to but not including 700 feet MSL, Class E airspace - 700 feet to 14,500 feet MSL.


Refer to figure 27, area 6.) The airspace overlying and within 5 miles of Barnes County Airport is A) Class D airspace from the surface to the floor of the overlying Class E airspace. B) Class E airspace from the surface to 1,200 feet MSL. C) Class G airspace from the surface to 700 feet AGL.


Refer to figure 26, area 7.) The airspace overlying Mc Kinney (TKI) is controlled from the surface to A) 2,900 feet MSL. B) 2,500 feet MSL. C) 700 feet AGL.


CLASS G AIRSPACE Uncontrolled airspace or Class G airspace is the portion of the airspace that has not been designated as Class A, B, C, D, or E. It is therefore designated uncontrolled airspace. Class G airspace extends from the surface to the base of the overlying Class E airspace. Air traffic control (ATC) has no authority or responsibility to control air traffic.


Class G: is the portion of the airspace that has not been designated as Class A, B, C, D, or E. It is therefore designated uncontrolled airspace. Class G airspace extends from the surface to the base of the overlying Class E airspace. Air traffic control (ATC) has no authority or responsibility to control air traffic. 1,200 feet or less above the surface (regardless of MSL altitude).Day1 statute mileClear of clouds.Night 3 statute miles500 feet below. 1,000 feet above.2,000 feet horizontal.


More than 1,200 feet above the is the portion of the airspace that has not been designated as Class A, B, C, D, or E. It is therefore designated uncontrolled airspace. Class G airspace extends from the surface to the base of the overlying Class E airspace. Air traffic control (ATC) has no authority or responsibility to control air traffic. surface but less than 10,000 feet MSLDay 1 statute mile 500 feet below 1,000 feet above. 2,000 feet horizontal.


Night is the portion of the airspace that has not been designated as Class A, B, C, D, or E. It is therefore designated uncontrolled airspace. Class G airspace extends from the surface to the base of the overlying Class E airspace. Air traffic control (ATC) has no authority or responsibility to control air traffic. 3 statute miles500 feet below. 1,000 feet above 2,000 feet horizontal.


More than 1,200 feet above the surface is the portion of the airspace that has not been designated as Class A, B, C, D, or E. It is therefore designated uncontrolled airspace. Class G airspace extends from the surface to the base of the overlying Class E airspace. Air traffic control (ATC) has no authority or responsibility to control air traffic. and at or above 10,000 feet MSL 5 statute miles 1,000 feet below 1,000 feet above.1 statute mile horizontal.


SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE Special use airspace exists where activities must be confined because of their nature. In special use airspace, limitations may be placed on aircraft that are not a part of the activities. Special use airspace usually consists of: • Prohibited Areas • Restricted Areas •Warning Areas • Military Operation Areas •Alert Areas • Controlled Firing Areas


• Prohibited Areas activities must be confined because of their nature. In special use airspace, limitations may be placed on aircraft that are not a part of the activities. Special use airspace usually consists of: • Prohibited Areas • Restricted Areas •Warning Areas • Military Operation Areas •Alert Areas • Controlled Firing Areas (The White House)• Restricted Areas (unusual, often invisible hazards to aircraft such as artillery firing, aerial gunnery, or guided missiles.)•Warning Areas (hazards to nonparticipating aircraft in international airspace)• Military Operation Areas (training activities may include acrobatic and abrupt maneuvers.)•Alert Areas (high volume of pilot training or unusual aerial activity is taking place.) • Controlled Firing Areas (activities must be suspended when a spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lookout position indicates an aircraft might be approaching the area.)


(Refer to figure 27, area 2.) What hazards to aircraft may exist in areas such as Devils Lake East MOA? A) Unusual, often invisible, hazards to aircraft such as artillery firing, aerial gunnery, or guided missiles. B) Military training activities that necessitate acrobatic or abrupt flight maneuvers. C) High volume of pilot training or an unusual type of aerial activity.


What action should a pilot take when operating under VFR in a Military Operations Area (MOA)? A) Exercise extreme caution when military activity is being conducted. B) Operate only on the airways that transverse the MOA. C) Obtain a clearance from the controlling agency prior to entering the MOA.


(Refer to figure 21.) What hazards to aircraft may exist in warning areas such as Warning W-50B?

A) High volume of pilot training or unusual type of aerial activity.

B) Unusual, often invisible, hazards such as aerial gunnery or guided missiles over international waters.

C) Heavy military aircraft traffic in the approach and departure area of the North Atlantic Control Area.


Under what condition, if any, may pilots fly through a restricted area? A) When flying on airways with an ATC clearance. B) With the controlling agency's authorization. C) Regulations do not allow this.


Responsibility for collision avoidance in an alert area rests with A) all pilots. B) the controlling agency. C) Air Traffic Control.


(Refer to figure 22.) What type military flight operations should a pilot expect along IR 644? A) IFR training flights above 1,500 feet AGL at speeds in excess of 250 knots. B) VFR training flights above 1,500 feet AGL at speeds less than 250 knots. C) Instrument training flights below 1,500 feet AGL at speeds in excess of 150 knots.


Advisory Services should a pilot expect along IR 644?Local Airport Advisory (LAA) service is operated within 10 statute miles of an airport where a control tower is not operating but where a FSS is located on the airport. At such locations, the FSS provides a complete local airport advisory service to arriving and departing aircraft.


RAA service is operated within 10 statute miles of specified high activity GA airports where a control tower is not operating. Airports offering this service are listed in the A/FD and the published service hours may be changed by NOTAM D.


Remote Airport Information Service (RAIS) is provided in support of short term special events like small to medium fly-ins. The service is advertised by NOTAM D only. The FSS will not have access to a continuous readout of the current winds and altimeter; therefore, RAIS does not include weather. Known traffic, special event instructions, and all other services are provided.


It is not mandatory that pilots participate in the Airport Advisory programs. Participation enhances safety for everyone operating around busy GA airports; therefore, everyone is encouraged to participate and provide feedback that will help improve the program.


Prior to entering an Airport Advisory Area, a pilot should Advisory programs. Participation enhances safety for everyone operating around busy GA airports; therefore, everyone is encouraged to participate and provide feedback that will help improve the program. A) contact the local FSS for airport and traffic advisories. B) monitor ATIS for weather and traffic advisories. C) contact approach control for vectors to the traffic pattern.


Airspeed FAR 91.117 Advisory programs. Participation enhances safety for everyone operating around busy GA airports; therefore, everyone is encouraged to participate and provide feedback that will help improve the program.

  • (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10,000 feet MSL at an indicated airspeed of more than 250 knots (288 m.p.h.).

  • (b) Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a Class C or Class D airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph.). This paragraph (b) does not apply to any operations within a Class B airspace area. Such operations shall comply with paragraph (a) of this section.

  • (c) No person may operate an aircraft in the airspace underlying a Class B airspace area designated for an airport or in a VFR corridor designated through such a Class B airspace area, at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph).

  • (d) If the minimum safe airspeed for any particular operation is greater than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed.


When flying in a VFR corridor designated through Class B airspace, the maximum speed authorized is A) 180 knots. B) 250 knots. C) 200 knots.


Unless otherwise authorized, what is the maximum indicated airspeed at which a person may operate an aircraft below 10,000 feet MSL? A) 250 knots. B) 288 knots. C) 200 knots.


When flying in the airspace underlying Class B airspace, the maximum speed authorized is A) 250 knots. B) 200 knots. C) 230 knots.



Introduction to the aim walk through
Introduction to the AIM (walk through) maximum speed authorized is


Minimum equipment lists
Minimum Equipment Lists maximum speed authorized is

  • FAR 91.213

  • FAR 91.205


Sources of airport information
Sources of Airport Information maximum speed authorized is

  • Charts

  • A/F D

  • NOTAMs


Assignment aim hak chapter 8 9
Assignment: AIM, HAK chapter 8, 9. maximum speed authorized is


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