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Preparation. Draft and Budget. Selective Training and Service Act – 1940 peacetime war draft. 21-36 year-old males military budget increased from 2-10 billion. War Production Board and Office of War Mobilization. WPB--Converted peacetime industries to war industry

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Draft and budget
Draft and Budget

  • Selective Training and Service Act – 1940

    • peacetime war draft.

    • 21-36 year-old males

  • military budget increased from 2-10 billion


War production board and office of war mobilization
War Production Board and Office of War Mobilization

  • WPB--Converted peacetime industries to war industry

    • Provided raw materials to companies transitioning to war goods.

  • OWM—James F. Byrnes appointed to head the organization

    • The organization centralized resources to fuel the war.

    • Byrnes was central in running the country during wartime


Military production
Military Production

  • Ford utilized his assembly line to produce b-24 bombers.

    • 1 per hour.

  • Henry Kaiser used the same mass production techniques to build Liberty Ships to carry troops and supplies

  • Cost Plus– Military paid cost plus a % for profits to the industries

  • Production soared


  • Military production numbers
    Military Production Numbers

    • 300,000 Planes

    • 80000 Landing crafts

    • 100,000 armored cars and tanks

    • 5600 merchant ships

    • 6,000,000 guns

    • 41,000,000,000 rounds of amunition



    Workers
    Workers

    • Wages rose by 50% between 40 and 45

    • Union Membership increased by more than 5 million

    • The number of strikes also rose sharply


    Financing the war
    Financing the War

    • 9 Billion in 1939 to 95 Billion in 1945

    • 1941-1945– 321 Billion (10x WWI)

    • War bonds of 186 billion, private loans and tax increases paid for the war

    • National debt increased by 200 billion


    Objectives examine the homefront
    Objectives: Examine the Homefront

    • Do Now: What were some of the ways in which the US geared up for war.


    Life on the homefront
    Life on the Homefront

    • OPA Office of Price Administration helped control inflation

    • Rationing of scarce food and consumer goods

    • Ration books- Once gone- no more

      • 2 rations books per month

        • Canned goods

        • Meat, fish and dairy

    • Gas Rationing

    • Nylons, Zippers, Rubber, etc


    Enlisting public support
    Enlisting Public Support

    • Victory gardens- People grow their own food 1/3 of country’s veggies by 1943

    • Blackouts- Bombing raid preparation

    • Recycle metal,

    • “Conserve and collect”

    • “Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without”


    Federal power
    Federal Power

    • Encourage Agriculture

      • Raise crop prices– Why?

      • Despite this– 5 million left farms

  • Enable borrowing

    • Low-cost loans for retooling factories

    • Subsidies for factory construction

  • Establishing housing

    • Detroit/Willow Run


  • Enlisting support
    Enlisting Support

    • Propaganda campaign

      • Posters, cartoons, newspapers, books, advertisements and movies.

        • Movies played an important role in inspiring support.

        • Actors and actresses continued to promote the war effort off screen

      • Sacrifice

      • Patriotism/Nationalism


    Consequences of propaganda campaign and patriotism
    Consequences of Propaganda Campaign and “Patriotism”

    • The need for labor helped women and blacks to gain a foothold in the workplace

    • FDR passed the FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Commission) to quell discriminatory practices

    • Nevertheless– Riots between blacks and white and contradictions in values

      • Fighting for equality abroad while promoting hatred of minorities at home

        • Black soldier asks for his tombstone to read, “here lies a black man killed fighting a yellow man for the protection of a white man.”

    • During WWII NAACP membership grew from 18000 to 500000


    Mexican americans
    Mexican Americans

    • More than 400,000 fought in the war

    • Bracero (work hands) program set up to employ thousands of Mexican workers.

    • Many Mexican-Americans sought jobs in factories

    • Ethnic tensions resulted

      • Zoot Suit riots


    Italians germans japanese and antisemitism
    Italians, Germans, Japanese and Antisemitism

    • Restrictions

      • No more naturalization

      • Restrictions on mobility

      • Restrictions on items that might be used for sabotage (cameras, shortwave radios, etc.)

    • Internment

      • 1600 Italians

      • 10000 Italians forced to move from W. Coast

      • 10905 Germans, Bulgarians, Hungarians and Romanians Interned

      • 100000 Japanese









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