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Preparation. Draft and Budget. Selective Training and Service Act – 1940 peacetime war draft. 21-36 year-old males military budget increased from 2-10 billion. War Production Board and Office of War Mobilization. WPB--Converted peacetime industries to war industry

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draft and budget
Draft and Budget
  • Selective Training and Service Act – 1940
    • peacetime war draft.
    • 21-36 year-old males
  • military budget increased from 2-10 billion
war production board and office of war mobilization
War Production Board and Office of War Mobilization
  • WPB--Converted peacetime industries to war industry
    • Provided raw materials to companies transitioning to war goods.
  • OWM—James F. Byrnes appointed to head the organization
    • The organization centralized resources to fuel the war.
    • Byrnes was central in running the country during wartime
military production
Military Production
  • Ford utilized his assembly line to produce b-24 bombers.
      • 1 per hour.
  • Henry Kaiser used the same mass production techniques to build Liberty Ships to carry troops and supplies
  • Cost Plus– Military paid cost plus a % for profits to the industries
  • Production soared
military production numbers
Military Production Numbers
  • 300,000 Planes
  • 80000 Landing crafts
  • 100,000 armored cars and tanks
  • 5600 merchant ships
  • 6,000,000 guns
  • 41,000,000,000 rounds of amunition
workers
Workers
  • Wages rose by 50% between 40 and 45
  • Union Membership increased by more than 5 million
  • The number of strikes also rose sharply
financing the war
Financing the War
  • 9 Billion in 1939 to 95 Billion in 1945
  • 1941-1945– 321 Billion (10x WWI)
  • War bonds of 186 billion, private loans and tax increases paid for the war
  • National debt increased by 200 billion
objectives examine the homefront
Objectives: Examine the Homefront
  • Do Now: What were some of the ways in which the US geared up for war.
life on the homefront
Life on the Homefront
  • OPA Office of Price Administration helped control inflation
  • Rationing of scarce food and consumer goods
  • Ration books- Once gone- no more
    • 2 rations books per month
      • Canned goods
      • Meat, fish and dairy
  • Gas Rationing
  • Nylons, Zippers, Rubber, etc
enlisting public support
Enlisting Public Support
  • Victory gardens- People grow their own food 1/3 of country’s veggies by 1943
  • Blackouts- Bombing raid preparation
  • Recycle metal,
  • “Conserve and collect”
  • “Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without”
federal power
Federal Power
  • Encourage Agriculture
      • Raise crop prices– Why?
      • Despite this– 5 million left farms
  • Enable borrowing
      • Low-cost loans for retooling factories
      • Subsidies for factory construction
  • Establishing housing
      • Detroit/Willow Run
enlisting support
Enlisting Support
  • Propaganda campaign
    • Posters, cartoons, newspapers, books, advertisements and movies.
      • Movies played an important role in inspiring support.
      • Actors and actresses continued to promote the war effort off screen
    • Sacrifice
    • Patriotism/Nationalism
consequences of propaganda campaign and patriotism
Consequences of Propaganda Campaign and “Patriotism”
  • The need for labor helped women and blacks to gain a foothold in the workplace
  • FDR passed the FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Commission) to quell discriminatory practices
  • Nevertheless– Riots between blacks and white and contradictions in values
    • Fighting for equality abroad while promoting hatred of minorities at home
      • Black soldier asks for his tombstone to read, “here lies a black man killed fighting a yellow man for the protection of a white man.”
  • During WWII NAACP membership grew from 18000 to 500000
mexican americans
Mexican Americans
  • More than 400,000 fought in the war
  • Bracero (work hands) program set up to employ thousands of Mexican workers.
  • Many Mexican-Americans sought jobs in factories
  • Ethnic tensions resulted
    • Zoot Suit riots
italians germans japanese and antisemitism
Italians, Germans, Japanese and Antisemitism
  • Restrictions
    • No more naturalization
    • Restrictions on mobility
    • Restrictions on items that might be used for sabotage (cameras, shortwave radios, etc.)
  • Internment
    • 1600 Italians
    • 10000 Italians forced to move from W. Coast
    • 10905 Germans, Bulgarians, Hungarians and Romanians Interned
    • 100000 Japanese
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