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DNA, Replication, Protein Synthesis. 2013. Goals for Today. Know ALL of Genetics Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions. Test Corrections Assignment. REWRITE each question completely.

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Goals for today
Goals for Today

  • Know ALL of Genetics

  • Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions


Test corrections assignment
Test Corrections Assignment

  • REWRITE each question completely.

    • Write out the correct answer (do NOT just put the letter of the correct answer!)

    • When finished place Study guides, Qods, & Notes in Folders.



Goals for today1
Goals for Today

  • Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions

  • Be able to discuss how scientific understanding is built

  • Be able to list or understand the contributions of less known scientists

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA


Question of the day
Question of the Day

  • What is DNA? Write your thoughts down, and what you know about it, you don’t have to be sure you are correct!


DNA is shaped like a double helix (a twisted ladder)

This shape was discovered by two scientists: James Watson & Francis Crick


Scientific knowledge
Scientific Knowledge

  • Scientific knowledge and discovery is always built on what we already know, past discovery & knowledge

  • Were Watson & Crick the only ones responsible for discovering the structure of the DNA molecule?



Griffith’s Experiments

Griffith discovered that harmless bacteria could turn virulent when mixed with bacteria that cause disease.

A bacteria that is virulent is able to cause disease.

Griffith had discovered what is now called transformation, a change in genotype caused when cells take up foreign genetic material.


MOUSE LIVES!!!!

  • When virulent bacteria are heat-killed and injected into a mouse……..

  • The Mouse Lives!

  • This told Griffith it was not the PROTEIN capsule on the bacteria that killed the mice.


Mouse Dies

  • When virulent bacteria are heat-killed and COMBINED with injected into a mouse……..with live non-virulent bacteria.

  • Mouse Dies

  • Griffith discovered that the non-virulent bacteria had acquired genes from the virulent bacteria.

  • This process is now known as transformation


  • Avery’s Experiments

  • In 1943, a series of experiments showed that the activity of the material responsible fortransformationis not affected by protein-destroying enzymes.

  • The activity is stopped, however, by a DNA-destroying enzyme.

  • Thus, almost 100 years after Mendel’s experiments, Oswald Avery and his co-workers demonstrated thatDNAis the material responsible for transformation NOT protein.


Dna nucleotide a nucleotide is the three component parts together

DNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts together

Phosphate

Group

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

Sugar

(deoxyribose)


Goals for today2
Goals for Today

  • Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions

  • Be able to discuss how scientific understanding is built

  • Be able to list or understand the contributions of less known scientists

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA


Question of the day1
Question of the Day

  • What are the contributions of these two scientists:

  • Griffith: -

  • Avery -


DNA’s Role Revealed

In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase used thebacteriophageT2 to prove thatDNAcarried genetic material.

Abacteriophage,also referred to as phage, is a virus that infects bacteria.

Whenphagesinfect bacterial cells, thephagesare able to produce more viruses,which are released when the bacterial cells rupture.



Hershey chase use viruses to prove dna is the genetic material
Hershey & Chase use viruses to prove DNA is the genetic material



Erwin chargaff
Erwin Chargaff

  • Chargaff’s research determined that in DNA there were always equal parts

  • Adenine = Thymine

    As well as equal parts

  • Cytosine = Guanine


Goals for today3
Goals for Today

  • Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA

  • Be able to list and describe the nitrogen bases and how they pair


Question of the day2
Question of the Day

What are the contributions of these scientists:

  • Chargaff:

  • Hershey & Chase:


Question of the day continued
Question of the Day continued

Chargaff - Determined that in DNA there are always equal parts Adenine-Thymine & equal parts Cytosine-Guanine

Hershey & Chase-Used bacteria & Viruses to prove that DNA was the genetic material


Dna what is good for
DNA…. what is good for?

  • DNA has 2 major functions in our body:

  • Make more DNA

  • Make Protein


The structure of dna
The Structure of DNA

  • DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • A double helix

  • Made of 3 basic components:

    • Sugar

    • Phosphate Group

    • Nitrogen bases


The backbone of dna
The backbone of DNA

  • The Sugar (deoxyribose) & phosphate group form the “backbone” of DNA or the sides of the ladder.


DNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts togetherThe Nitrogen Base is the Variable Piece of the Nucleotide

N

Phosphate

Group

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

Sugar

(deoxyribose)


Nitrogenous bases
Nitrogenous Bases

Purines

  • A –Adenine

  • G – Guanine

    Pyrimidines

  • T – Thymine

  • C - Cytosine


Rosalind franklin
Rosalind Franklin

It was Franklin’s photograph that ultimately allowed Watson & Crick to get the correct base pairing, because they now new exactly how wide the helix was (The width between the sides of the double helix).

  • Additionally, it was Franklin who suggested that the bases would go on the inside of the helix & not the outside as Watson & Crick originally thought


Nitrogenous base pairing
Nitrogenous Base Pairing

Nitrogen bases form the rungs of the “ladder” by forming Hydrogen bonds

What Watson & Crick had to figure out was how the bases paired up


Nitrogen base pairing
Nitrogen Base Pairing

  • There were 3 scientists, other then Rosalind Franklin, whose research & help contributed to Watson & Crick coming up with the correct pairing of the nitrogen bases

  • Adenine - Thymine

  • Cytosine - Guanine


2 hydrogen bonds between adenine thymine 3 hydrogen bonds between cytosine guanine
2 Hydrogen bonds between Adenine & Thymine3 Hydrogen bonds between Cytosine & Guanine


Dna nucleotide a nucleotide is the three component parts together1

DNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts together

Phosphate

Group

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

Sugar

(deoxyribose)


Goals for today4
Goals for Today

  • Be able to describe the process and enzymes involved in DNA replication.

  • Be able to list and describe the nitrogen bases and how they pair

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA


Question of the day3
Question of the Day

What are the contributions of these scientists:

  • Rosalind Franklin:

  • Watson & Crick:


Question of the day continued1
Question of the Day continued

Rosalind Franklin- Her research provided the basis for the first accurate model of DNA

Watson & Crick- First to accurately describe and model the chemical structure of DNA



Dna what is good for1
DNA…. what is good for?

  • DNA has 2 major functions in our body:

  • Make more DNA

  • Make Protein


Making more dna
Making More DNA…

  • DNA replication is the process we use to make more copies of DNA

  • When would we need to make more DNA?


Making more dna1
Making More DNA…

  • DNA is copied in the “S” phase of interphase to prepare for cell division.

  • DNA replication occurs so new daughter cells will have the same information and the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.


Enzyme review
Enzyme Review

*What two things can enzymes do?



Dna replication
DNA Replication

DNA replication occurs in 3 basic steps:

  • The enzyme DNA helicaseopens the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the complementary nitrogen bases between the two strands.

  • Complementary bases -



Dna replication2
DNA Replication

  • The Enzyme DNA polymerasemove along each of the DNA strands. DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases, according to the base-pairing rules.

  • Two DNA molecules form that are identical to the original DNA molecule.

    *What do both of these enzymes end in?


Dna replication3
DNA Replication

DNA Replication is known as

“Semiconservative process”

Semi =

Conserve =


Lets see it in real time
Lets see it in real time!

  • DNA REPLICATION in Real Time

  • How fast do you think this happens?




Goals for today5
Goals for Today

  • Be able to describe the process and enzymes involved in DNA replication.

  • Be able to list and describe the nitrogen bases and how they pair

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA


Question of the day4
Question of the Day

What is the difference between a Purine & Pyrimidine?

Purines =

Pyrimidines =

Write the complementary base pairs including hydrogen bonding below:


Skills check tomorrow
Skills Check Tomorrow

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Labeling parts of a nucleotide – variable parts

  • Base Pairing – Complements

  • Hydrogen bonding

  • Purines/Pyrimidines

  • Enzymes & Replication

  • Shape of DNA

  • “Backbone” of DNA



What you will need for your dna
What you will need for your DNA

  • This is per pair, not for each individual

  • 2 paper towels

  • 2 red twizzlers

  • 2 chocolate twizzlers

  • Colored marshmallows ~40

  • Toothpicks ~40


Goals for today6
Goals for Today

  • Demonstrate that we are able to describe the process and enzymes involved in DNA replication.

  • Demonstrate that we are to list and describe the nitrogen bases and how they pair

  • Demonstrate that we are able to name the 3 basic components of DNA

  • Begin learning about Protein Synthesis


Question of the day5
Question of the Day

What process did we model in our lab yesterday?

What is the purpose of this process? Why do we do it?



Skills check today
Skills Check TODAY

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Labeling parts of a nucleotide – variable parts

  • Base Pairing – Complements

  • Hydrogen bonding

  • Purines/Pyrimidines

  • Enzymes & Replication

  • Shape of DNA

  • “Backbone” of DNA


Ok so what is dna good for
Ok…….So what is DNA good for?

  • DNA has 2 major functions in our body:

  • Make more DNA

  • Make Protein


The library
The Library

Library -

Book/Original recipe -

Librarian

Transcribed recipe

Chef (Who takes the recipe & puts it together?)

Runner/Person who delivers ingredients to the chef

Ingredients

Final product


Assignment after quiz due tuesday
Assignment after QuizDue Tuesday

Read pages 235-241

Describe the RNA molecule

Describe the process of transcription & list the molecules involved (2)

Describe the process of translation and list the molecules involved

On what molecule is a codon found?

On what molecule is an anti-codon found? What else is found on this molecule?


Now its your turn
Now its your turn!

Write in the complimentary bases and connect them with the appropriate number of hydrogen bonds

Pyrimidines

Purines

Pairing Rules & Bonds


Now its your turn1
Now its your turn!

Write in the complimentary bases and connect them with the appropriate number of hydrogen bonds

Pyrimidines

Purines

Pairing Rules & Bonds


Now its your turn answer key
Now its your turn! – Answer Key

Write in the complimentary bases and connect them with the appropriate number of hydrogen bonds

Pyrimidines

Purines

Pairing Rules & Bonds


Question of the day6
Question of the Day

  • What are the 3 major components of a nucleotide?

  • Draw one if you can, and label the parts.

  • Which piece is variable (changes from nucleotide to nucleotide?


Dna nucleotide a nucleotide is the three component parts together2

DNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts together

Phosphate

Group

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

Sugar

(deoxyribose)


Question of the day7
Question of the Day

Write down the following base pair sequence, and its complementary strand (the strand that pairs with it)

How many base pairs are there?

How many nucleotides?


Goals for today7
Goals for Today

Be able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Be able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Be able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day8
Question of the Day

What do we know about the structure of DNA?


Protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis

The first step in protein synthesis involves DNA & a very similar molecule, RNA that is also made of nucleotides.

Before we talk about the individual steps in making proteins, lets compare DNA & RNA


Dna vs rna
DNA vs. RNA

DNA & RNA differ from each other in several important ways. See if you can fill in this chart for the DNA side of things:


Rna nucleotide a nucleotide is the three component parts together

RNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts together

Phosphate

Group

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or )

Sugar

( )


Nitrogen Bases

Sugars

&

Phosphates

RNA

DNA

RNA – Ribonucleic Acid

RNA is like DNA except…

- it is single stranded

- it has uracil instead of thymine

- it has ribose instead of deoxyribose



Dna or rna1
DNA or RNA?

It is DNA because there are “T”s in it for Thymine


Dna what is good for2
DNA…. what is good for?

  • DNA has 2 major functions in our body:

  • Make more DNA

  • Make Protein


DNA holds the directions for protein synthesis

Protein synthesis -making proteins

Gene section of DNA that carries the code for making one protein


Protein synthesis1
Protein Synthesis

Gene section of DNA that carries the code for making 1 protein

There are thousands of genes on each chromosome.

Everything in your body is made of AND by proteins! Ex. Enzymes are proteins! 


Steps of protein synthesis
Steps of Protein Synthesis

The first step of Protein Synthesis is known as Transcription

DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) by an enzyme known as:

RNA polymerase, which builds an RNA strand that is complimentary to the DNA strand.


Transcription
Transcription

RNA polymerase, which builds an RNA strand that is complimentary to the DNA strand.


Steps of protein synthesis1
Steps of Protein Synthesis

If DNA is what is being transcribed, then what part of the EUKARYOTIC cell would this occur in?

Transcription occurs in the _____________


Transcription practice
Transcription – Practice!

RNA polymerase, which builds an RNA strand that is complimentary to the DNA strand.


Messenger rna mrna
Messenger RNA - mRNA

The message of mRNA is carried in “codons”

A codon is a three base sequence that will code for an Amino Acid (the building block of a proteins.

Together the codons in the mRNA strand code for 1 protein, typically hundreds or thousands of Amino Acids


Transcription1
Transcription

  • Try to pick out the molecules: RNA Polymerase, mRNA, Nucleotides, & DNA


Goals for today8
Goals for Today

Be able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Be able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Be able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day9
Question of the Day

What process makes an mRNA molecule?

What is needed to produce it?

What sets mRNA apart from DNA?


Steps of protein synthesis2
Steps of Protein Synthesis

DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) by an enzyme known as:

RNA polymerase, which builds an RNA strand that is complimentary to the DNA strand.



Steps of protein synthesis3
Steps of Protein Synthesis

The next major process in protein synthesis is known as “translation” in this process mRNA is translated into protein.

Before translation can happen mRNA must move out of the nucleus ( in ______ organisms) and into the cytoplasm.



Messenger rna mrna1
Messenger RNA - mRNA

DNA’s “recipes” are transcribed by the enzyme ____ ____________ to make a molecule of mRNA.

mRNA is like a different language then DNA

mRNA is the language that the ribosome -(protein building machine) can read.


Steps of protein synthesis4
Steps of Protein Synthesis

The next step of Protein Synthesis is TRANSLATION

Once the mRNA strand leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm the mRNA Attaches to a ribosome (our cell’s protein making machine)


Steps of protein synthesis5
Steps of Protein Synthesis

Once the mRNA strand leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm the mRNA Attaches to a ribosome (our cell’s protein making machine)

Next a molecule of Transfer RNA (tRNA) attaches to the mRNA strand


Anatomy of a transfer t rna trna
Anatomy of a Transfer “t” RNA (tRNA)



Steps of protein synthesis6
Steps of Protein Synthesis

Next a molecule of Transfer RNA (tRNA) attaches to the mRNA strand


Steps of protein synthesis7
Steps of Protein Synthesis

4. Next a molecule of Transfer RNA (tRNA) attaches to the mRNA strand

5. Amino acids are linked together by the ribosome to form the final protein (which is really just a long chain of amino acids)


Translation
Translation

  • Real Time Animation


Protein synthesis2
Protein Synthesis

Lets put it all together!



Goals for today9
Goals for Today mRNA

Be able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Be able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Be able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day10
Question of the Day mRNA

Draw a molecule of tRNA below and label the parts of the tRNA

What does the “t” stand for?





Translation2
Translation mRNA

  • Real Time Animation


Goals for today10
Goals for Today mRNA

Demonstrate that we are able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Demonstrate that we are able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Demonstrate that we are able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day11
Question of the Day mRNA

Which molecule has the “Codon” and which has the “anticodon”

Codon =

Anticodon =

What do you look at in the decoder to find the amino acid? (the codon or anticodon?)



Dna or rna3
DNA mRNA or RNA?

It is DNA because is Double Stranded



Dna or rna5
DNA mRNA or RNA?

It is RNA because there are “U”s in it for Uracil


Skills check friday
Skills Check Friday mRNA

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Differences between RNA & DNA (table)

  • Nucleotide parts/labeling

  • Steps/Stages in Protein Synthesis

  • DNA mRNA tRNA Amino Acid



Goals for today11
Goals for Today mRNA

Demonstrate that we are able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Demonstrate that we are able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Demonstrate that we are able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day12
Question of the Day mRNA

What is an Amino Acid?

Which molecule brings the Amino Acid to the Ribosome?


Skills check today1
Skills Check Today mRNA

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Differences between RNA & DNA (table)

  • Nucleotide parts/labeling

  • Steps/Stages in Protein Synthesis

  • DNA mRNA tRNA Amino Acid


Goals for today12
Goals for Today mRNA

Know all of the stages of Protein Synthesis

Be able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Be able to describe name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Be able to describe list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day13
Question of the Day mRNA

What are you still struggling with in Protein Synthesis?


Skills check corrections
Skills Check corrections mRNA

  • Re-write entire question and then have the correct answer.


Skills check today2
Skills Check Today mRNA

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Differences between RNA & DNA (table)

  • Nucleotide parts/labeling

  • Steps/Stages in Protein Synthesis

  • DNA mRNA tRNA Amino Acid


Goals for today13
Goals for Today mRNA

Be prepared for our test TOMORROW


Question of the day14
Question of the Day mRNA

What is a gene?

What molecule is it found on?


Goals for today14
Goals for Today mRNA

Demonstrate What we know about:

DNA & RNA

DNA replication

Protein Synthesis


Question of the day15
Question of the Day mRNA

What are the two functions of DNA?


After the test answer the following
After the test answer the following: mRNA

  • What do I Know/have heard about

  • What do I want to know what questions do I have

  • DNA Fingerprinting

  • Cloning

  • Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

  • Mutations

  • Mutagens (things that cause mutation)

  • Glance through pages 266-280 and write down questions or things that peak your interest


Goals for today15
Goals for Today mRNA

Learn all of DNA & Protein Synthesis

Complete test corrections

Have some fun!


Question of the day16
Question of the Day mRNA

What does the discovery to the structure of DNA tell us about the PROCESS of science?


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