Dna replication protein synthesis
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DNA, Replication, Protein Synthesis. 2013. Goals for Today. Know ALL of Genetics Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions. Test Corrections Assignment. REWRITE each question completely.

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Dna replication protein synthesis

DNA, Replication, Protein Synthesis

2013


Goals for today

Goals for Today

  • Know ALL of Genetics

  • Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions


Test corrections assignment

Test Corrections Assignment

  • REWRITE each question completely.

    • Write out the correct answer (do NOT just put the letter of the correct answer!)

    • When finished place Study guides, Qods, & Notes in Folders.


Introduction to dna

Introduction to DNA


Goals for today1

Goals for Today

  • Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions

  • Be able to discuss how scientific understanding is built

  • Be able to list or understand the contributions of less known scientists

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA


Question of the day

Question of the Day

  • What is DNA? Write your thoughts down, and what you know about it, you don’t have to be sure you are correct!


Dna replication protein synthesis

DNA is shaped like a double helix (a twisted ladder)

This shape was discovered by two scientists: James Watson & Francis Crick


Scientific knowledge

Scientific Knowledge

  • Scientific knowledge and discovery is always built on what we already know, past discovery & knowledge

  • Were Watson & Crick the only ones responsible for discovering the structure of the DNA molecule?


Who is rosalind franklin

Who is Rosalind Franklin?


Dna replication protein synthesis

Griffith’s Experiments

Griffith discovered that harmless bacteria could turn virulent when mixed with bacteria that cause disease.

A bacteria that is virulent is able to cause disease.

Griffith had discovered what is now called transformation, a change in genotype caused when cells take up foreign genetic material.


Dna replication protein synthesis

MOUSE LIVES!!!!

  • When virulent bacteria are heat-killed and injected into a mouse……..

  • The Mouse Lives!

  • This told Griffith it was not the PROTEIN capsule on the bacteria that killed the mice.


Dna replication protein synthesis

Mouse Dies 

  • When virulent bacteria are heat-killed and COMBINED with injected into a mouse……..with live non-virulent bacteria.

  • Mouse Dies

  • Griffith discovered that the non-virulent bacteria had acquired genes from the virulent bacteria.

  • This process is now known as transformation


Dna replication protein synthesis

  • Avery’s Experiments

  • In 1943, a series of experiments showed that the activity of the material responsible fortransformationis not affected by protein-destroying enzymes.

  • The activity is stopped, however, by a DNA-destroying enzyme.

  • Thus, almost 100 years after Mendel’s experiments, Oswald Avery and his co-workers demonstrated thatDNAis the material responsible for transformation NOT protein.


Dna nucleotide a nucleotide is the three component parts together

DNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts together

Phosphate

Group

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

Sugar

(deoxyribose)


Goals for today2

Goals for Today

  • Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions

  • Be able to discuss how scientific understanding is built

  • Be able to list or understand the contributions of less known scientists

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA


Question of the day1

Question of the Day

  • What are the contributions of these two scientists:

  • Griffith: -

  • Avery -


Dna replication protein synthesis

DNA’s Role Revealed

In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase used thebacteriophageT2 to prove thatDNAcarried genetic material.

Abacteriophage,also referred to as phage, is a virus that infects bacteria.

Whenphagesinfect bacterial cells, thephagesare able to produce more viruses,which are released when the bacterial cells rupture.


Life cycle of a virus bacteriophage

Life Cycle of a virus (bacteriophage)


Hershey chase use viruses to prove dna is the genetic material

Hershey & Chase use viruses to prove DNA is the genetic material


Who is rosalind franklin1

Who is Rosalind Franklin?


Erwin chargaff

Erwin Chargaff

  • Chargaff’s research determined that in DNA there were always equal parts

  • Adenine = Thymine

    As well as equal parts

  • Cytosine = Guanine


Goals for today3

Goals for Today

  • Be able to name the scientists that helped build our knowledge of DNA and be able to describe their contributions

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA

  • Be able to list and describe the nitrogen bases and how they pair


Question of the day2

Question of the Day

What are the contributions of these scientists:

  • Chargaff:

  • Hershey & Chase:


Question of the day continued

Question of the Day continued

Chargaff - Determined that in DNA there are always equal parts Adenine-Thymine & equal parts Cytosine-Guanine

Hershey & Chase-Used bacteria & Viruses to prove that DNA was the genetic material


Dna what is good for

DNA…. what is good for?

  • DNA has 2 major functions in our body:

  • Make more DNA

  • Make Protein


The structure of dna

The Structure of DNA

  • DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • A double helix

  • Made of 3 basic components:

    • Sugar

    • Phosphate Group

    • Nitrogen bases


The backbone of dna

The backbone of DNA

  • The Sugar (deoxyribose) & phosphate group form the “backbone” of DNA or the sides of the ladder.


Dna replication protein synthesis

DNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts togetherThe Nitrogen Base is the Variable Piece of the Nucleotide

N

Phosphate

Group

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

Sugar

(deoxyribose)


Nitrogenous bases

Nitrogenous Bases

Purines

  • A –Adenine

  • G – Guanine

    Pyrimidines

  • T – Thymine

  • C - Cytosine


Rosalind franklin

Rosalind Franklin

It was Franklin’s photograph that ultimately allowed Watson & Crick to get the correct base pairing, because they now new exactly how wide the helix was (The width between the sides of the double helix).

  • Additionally, it was Franklin who suggested that the bases would go on the inside of the helix & not the outside as Watson & Crick originally thought


Nitrogenous base pairing

Nitrogenous Base Pairing

Nitrogen bases form the rungs of the “ladder” by forming Hydrogen bonds

What Watson & Crick had to figure out was how the bases paired up


Nitrogen base pairing

Nitrogen Base Pairing

  • There were 3 scientists, other then Rosalind Franklin, whose research & help contributed to Watson & Crick coming up with the correct pairing of the nitrogen bases

  • Adenine - Thymine

  • Cytosine - Guanine


2 hydrogen bonds between adenine thymine 3 hydrogen bonds between cytosine guanine

2 Hydrogen bonds between Adenine & Thymine3 Hydrogen bonds between Cytosine & Guanine


Dna nucleotide a nucleotide is the three component parts together1

DNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts together

Phosphate

Group

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

Sugar

(deoxyribose)


Goals for today4

Goals for Today

  • Be able to describe the process and enzymes involved in DNA replication.

  • Be able to list and describe the nitrogen bases and how they pair

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA


Question of the day3

Question of the Day

What are the contributions of these scientists:

  • Rosalind Franklin:

  • Watson & Crick:


Question of the day continued1

Question of the Day continued

Rosalind Franklin- Her research provided the basis for the first accurate model of DNA

Watson & Crick- First to accurately describe and model the chemical structure of DNA


Base pairing practice

Base Pairing Practice!


Dna what is good for1

DNA…. what is good for?

  • DNA has 2 major functions in our body:

  • Make more DNA

  • Make Protein


Making more dna

Making More DNA…

  • DNA replication is the process we use to make more copies of DNA

  • When would we need to make more DNA?


Making more dna1

Making More DNA…

  • DNA is copied in the “S” phase of interphase to prepare for cell division.

  • DNA replication occurs so new daughter cells will have the same information and the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.


Enzyme review

Enzyme Review

*What two things can enzymes do?


What has to break for the dna strand to come apart

What has to break for the DNA strand to come apart?


Dna replication

DNA Replication

DNA replication occurs in 3 basic steps:

  • The enzyme DNA helicaseopens the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the complementary nitrogen bases between the two strands.

  • Complementary bases -


Dna replication1

DNA Replication


Dna replication2

DNA Replication

  • The Enzyme DNA polymerasemove along each of the DNA strands. DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases, according to the base-pairing rules.

  • Two DNA molecules form that are identical to the original DNA molecule.

    *What do both of these enzymes end in?


Dna replication3

DNA Replication

DNA Replication is known as

“Semiconservative process”

Semi =

Conserve =


Lets see it in real time

Lets see it in real time!

  • DNA REPLICATION in Real Time

  • How fast do you think this happens?


Dna replication4

DNA REPLICATION


Anti parallel

Anti-parallel


Goals for today5

Goals for Today

  • Be able to describe the process and enzymes involved in DNA replication.

  • Be able to list and describe the nitrogen bases and how they pair

  • Be name the 3 basic components of DNA


Question of the day4

Question of the Day

What is the difference between a Purine & Pyrimidine?

Purines =

Pyrimidines =

Write the complementary base pairs including hydrogen bonding below:


Skills check tomorrow

Skills Check Tomorrow

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Labeling parts of a nucleotide – variable parts

  • Base Pairing – Complements

  • Hydrogen bonding

  • Purines/Pyrimidines

  • Enzymes & Replication

  • Shape of DNA

  • “Backbone” of DNA


Time to make your own dna

Time to make your own DNA….

  • AND REPLICATE IT!


What you will need for your dna

What you will need for your DNA

  • This is per pair, not for each individual

  • 2 paper towels

  • 2 red twizzlers

  • 2 chocolate twizzlers

  • Colored marshmallows ~40

  • Toothpicks ~40


Goals for today6

Goals for Today

  • Demonstrate that we are able to describe the process and enzymes involved in DNA replication.

  • Demonstrate that we are to list and describe the nitrogen bases and how they pair

  • Demonstrate that we are able to name the 3 basic components of DNA

  • Begin learning about Protein Synthesis


Question of the day5

Question of the Day

What process did we model in our lab yesterday?

What is the purpose of this process? Why do we do it?


Get out your labs please

Get out your labs please!


Skills check today

Skills Check TODAY

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Labeling parts of a nucleotide – variable parts

  • Base Pairing – Complements

  • Hydrogen bonding

  • Purines/Pyrimidines

  • Enzymes & Replication

  • Shape of DNA

  • “Backbone” of DNA


Ok so what is dna good for

Ok…….So what is DNA good for?

  • DNA has 2 major functions in our body:

  • Make more DNA

  • Make Protein


The library

The Library

Library -

Book/Original recipe -

Librarian

Transcribed recipe

Chef (Who takes the recipe & puts it together?)

Runner/Person who delivers ingredients to the chef

Ingredients

Final product


Assignment after quiz due tuesday

Assignment after QuizDue Tuesday

Read pages 235-241

Describe the RNA molecule

Describe the process of transcription & list the molecules involved (2)

Describe the process of translation and list the molecules involved

On what molecule is a codon found?

On what molecule is an anti-codon found? What else is found on this molecule?


Now its your turn

Now its your turn!

Write in the complimentary bases and connect them with the appropriate number of hydrogen bonds

Pyrimidines

Purines

Pairing Rules & Bonds


Now its your turn1

Now its your turn!

Write in the complimentary bases and connect them with the appropriate number of hydrogen bonds

Pyrimidines

Purines

Pairing Rules & Bonds


Now its your turn answer key

Now its your turn! – Answer Key

Write in the complimentary bases and connect them with the appropriate number of hydrogen bonds

Pyrimidines

Purines

Pairing Rules & Bonds


Question of the day6

Question of the Day

  • What are the 3 major components of a nucleotide?

  • Draw one if you can, and label the parts.

  • Which piece is variable (changes from nucleotide to nucleotide?


Dna nucleotide a nucleotide is the three component parts together2

DNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts together

Phosphate

Group

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

Sugar

(deoxyribose)


Question of the day7

Question of the Day

Write down the following base pair sequence, and its complementary strand (the strand that pairs with it)

How many base pairs are there?

How many nucleotides?


Goals for today7

Goals for Today

Be able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Be able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Be able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day8

Question of the Day

What do we know about the structure of DNA?


Protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis

The first step in protein synthesis involves DNA & a very similar molecule, RNA that is also made of nucleotides.

Before we talk about the individual steps in making proteins, lets compare DNA & RNA


Dna vs rna

DNA vs. RNA

DNA & RNA differ from each other in several important ways. See if you can fill in this chart for the DNA side of things:


Rna nucleotide a nucleotide is the three component parts together

RNA Nucleotide – a nucleotide is the three component parts together

Phosphate

Group

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or )

Sugar

( )


Dna replication protein synthesis

Nitrogen Bases

Sugars

&

Phosphates

RNA

DNA

RNA – Ribonucleic Acid

RNA is like DNA except…

- it is single stranded

- it has uracil instead of thymine

- it has ribose instead of deoxyribose


Dna or rna

DNA or RNA?


Dna or rna1

DNA or RNA?

It is DNA because there are “T”s in it for Thymine


Dna what is good for2

DNA…. what is good for?

  • DNA has 2 major functions in our body:

  • Make more DNA

  • Make Protein


Dna replication protein synthesis

DNA holds the directions for protein synthesis

Protein synthesis -making proteins

Gene section of DNA that carries the code for making one protein


Protein synthesis1

Protein Synthesis

Gene section of DNA that carries the code for making 1 protein

There are thousands of genes on each chromosome.

Everything in your body is made of AND by proteins! Ex. Enzymes are proteins! 


Steps of protein synthesis

Steps of Protein Synthesis

The first step of Protein Synthesis is known as Transcription

DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) by an enzyme known as:

RNA polymerase, which builds an RNA strand that is complimentary to the DNA strand.


Transcription

Transcription

RNA polymerase, which builds an RNA strand that is complimentary to the DNA strand.


Steps of protein synthesis1

Steps of Protein Synthesis

If DNA is what is being transcribed, then what part of the EUKARYOTIC cell would this occur in?

Transcription occurs in the _____________


Transcription practice

Transcription – Practice!

RNA polymerase, which builds an RNA strand that is complimentary to the DNA strand.


Messenger rna mrna

Messenger RNA - mRNA

The message of mRNA is carried in “codons”

A codon is a three base sequence that will code for an Amino Acid (the building block of a proteins.

Together the codons in the mRNA strand code for 1 protein, typically hundreds or thousands of Amino Acids


Transcription1

Transcription

  • Try to pick out the molecules: RNA Polymerase, mRNA, Nucleotides, & DNA


Goals for today8

Goals for Today

Be able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Be able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Be able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day9

Question of the Day

What process makes an mRNA molecule?

What is needed to produce it?

What sets mRNA apart from DNA?


Steps of protein synthesis2

Steps of Protein Synthesis

DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) by an enzyme known as:

RNA polymerase, which builds an RNA strand that is complimentary to the DNA strand.


Transcription assignment

Transcription Assignment


Steps of protein synthesis3

Steps of Protein Synthesis

The next major process in protein synthesis is known as “translation” in this process mRNA is translated into protein.

Before translation can happen mRNA must move out of the nucleus ( in ______ organisms) and into the cytoplasm.


Practice transcription

Practice Transcription


Messenger rna mrna1

Messenger RNA - mRNA

DNA’s “recipes” are transcribed by the enzyme ____ ____________ to make a molecule of mRNA.

mRNA is like a different language then DNA

mRNA is the language that the ribosome -(protein building machine) can read.


Steps of protein synthesis4

Steps of Protein Synthesis

The next step of Protein Synthesis is TRANSLATION

Once the mRNA strand leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm the mRNA Attaches to a ribosome (our cell’s protein making machine)


Steps of protein synthesis5

Steps of Protein Synthesis

Once the mRNA strand leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm the mRNA Attaches to a ribosome (our cell’s protein making machine)

Next a molecule of Transfer RNA (tRNA) attaches to the mRNA strand


Anatomy of a transfer t rna trna

Anatomy of a Transfer “t” RNA (tRNA)


Anatomy of a trna

Anatomy of a (tRNA)


Steps of protein synthesis6

Steps of Protein Synthesis

Next a molecule of Transfer RNA (tRNA) attaches to the mRNA strand


Steps of protein synthesis7

Steps of Protein Synthesis

4. Next a molecule of Transfer RNA (tRNA) attaches to the mRNA strand

5. Amino acids are linked together by the ribosome to form the final protein (which is really just a long chain of amino acids)


Translation

Translation

  • Real Time Animation


Protein synthesis2

Protein Synthesis

Lets put it all together!


Create the mrna trna and find the amino acid coded for on mrna

Create the mRNA, tRNA and find the Amino Acid coded for on mRNA


Goals for today9

Goals for Today

Be able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Be able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Be able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day10

Question of the Day

Draw a molecule of tRNA below and label the parts of the tRNA

What does the “t” stand for?


Anatomy of a trna1

Anatomy of a (tRNA)


Translation1

Translation


Create the mrna trna and find the amino acid coded for on mrna1

Create the mRNA, tRNA and find the Amino Acid coded for on mRNA


Translation2

Translation

  • Real Time Animation


Goals for today10

Goals for Today

Demonstrate that we are able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Demonstrate that we are able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Demonstrate that we are able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day11

Question of the Day

Which molecule has the “Codon” and which has the “anticodon”

Codon =

Anticodon =

What do you look at in the decoder to find the amino acid? (the codon or anticodon?)


Dna or rna2

DNA or RNA?


Dna or rna3

DNA or RNA?

It is DNA because is Double Stranded


Dna or rna4

DNA or RNA?


Dna or rna5

DNA or RNA?

It is RNA because there are “U”s in it for Uracil


Skills check friday

Skills Check Friday

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Differences between RNA & DNA (table)

  • Nucleotide parts/labeling

  • Steps/Stages in Protein Synthesis

  • DNA mRNA tRNA Amino Acid


Protein synthesis practice

Protein Synthesis Practice


Goals for today11

Goals for Today

Demonstrate that we are able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Demonstrate that we are able to name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Demonstrate that we are able to list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day12

Question of the Day

What is an Amino Acid?

Which molecule brings the Amino Acid to the Ribosome?


Skills check today1

Skills Check Today

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Differences between RNA & DNA (table)

  • Nucleotide parts/labeling

  • Steps/Stages in Protein Synthesis

  • DNA mRNA tRNA Amino Acid


Goals for today12

Goals for Today

Know all of the stages of Protein Synthesis

Be able to describe how DNA & RNA molecules differ from each other.

Be able to describe name and describe the two major steps of protein synthesis (how proteins are made)

Be able to describe list the molecules & structures involved in Transcription & Translation.


Question of the day13

Question of the Day

What are you still struggling with in Protein Synthesis?


Skills check corrections

Skills Check corrections

  • Re-write entire question and then have the correct answer.


Skills check today2

Skills Check Today

  • Scientists & Contributions

  • Differences between RNA & DNA (table)

  • Nucleotide parts/labeling

  • Steps/Stages in Protein Synthesis

  • DNA mRNA tRNA Amino Acid


Goals for today13

Goals for Today

Be prepared for our test TOMORROW


Question of the day14

Question of the Day

What is a gene?

What molecule is it found on?


Goals for today14

Goals for Today

Demonstrate What we know about:

DNA & RNA

DNA replication

Protein Synthesis


Question of the day15

Question of the Day

What are the two functions of DNA?


After the test answer the following

After the test answer the following:

  • What do I Know/have heard about

  • What do I want to know what questions do I have

  • DNA Fingerprinting

  • Cloning

  • Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

  • Mutations

  • Mutagens (things that cause mutation)

  • Glance through pages 266-280 and write down questions or things that peak your interest


Goals for today15

Goals for Today

Learn all of DNA & Protein Synthesis

Complete test corrections

Have some fun!


Question of the day16

Question of the Day

What does the discovery to the structure of DNA tell us about the PROCESS of science?


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