Ionic and covalent bonds
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Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Ionic Bonds. When an atom has less than 8 valence electrons in its outer shell, it will gain or lose electrons to become more stable. First outer shell = full with 2 valence electrons Every other shell = full with 8 valence electrons . Ionic Bonds.

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Ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds

  • When an atom has less than 8 valence electrons in

    its outer shell, it will gain or lose electrons to become more stable.

  • First outer shell = full with 2 valence electrons

  • Every other shell = full with 8 valence electrons


Ionic bonds1
Ionic Bonds

  • When an atom loses an electron, it loses a negative charge and becomes a positive ion or Cation


Ionic bonds2
Ionic Bonds

  • When an atom gains a negative charge, it becomes a negative ion or Anion


Ionic bond
Ionic Bond

  • When the two bonds come together, the opposite charges cancel out

  • Find the charge by locating the element in the group (column) on the periodic table

    • Ex. Group 1 has 1 valence electron, can easily give it away to form a complete outer shell

      • Na has an oxidation number of 1+

        (left with a positive charge after giving away its valence electron)


Ionic bond1
Ionic Bond

Ex. Group 17 has 7 valence electrons, can easily gain 1 more to have a full outer shell

- Cl has an oxidation number of 1- because it gains a negative charge when it completes it’s outer shell

Ionic Bond between Na and Cl:

Na1+Cl1-  NaCl


Ionic bonds3
Ionic Bonds

  • Polyatomic Ions- ions that are made of more than one atom

    Ex. Carbonate ion (CO32-) can bond with another ion of an opposite charge, Ca2+

    _charges cancel out, forming CaCO3


Naming ionic compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds

  • For an ionic compound, the name of the positive ion comes first, followed by the name of the negative ion

  • If the negative ion is an element, the end of its name changes to –ide

    • Ex. Mg2+O2- MgO

      Use the names of the elements and change the 2nd element’s ending to –ide

      Magnesium oxide


Naming polyatomic ions
Naming Polyatomic Ions

  • If the negative ion is polyatomic, its name remains unchanged.

    • Ex. Baking Soda NaHCO3

      Sodium carbonate

      -Usually use the first two elements and change the second element’s ending to -ate


Covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds

  • Chemical bonds formed between 2 or more nonmetals

  • 2 or more atoms share electrons at the same time


Covalent bonds1
Covalent Bonds

  • To form a covalent bond, find the number of valence electrons that each element has (group #)

  • Determine how each element can share valence electrons in order to form a full outer shell


Covalent bonds2
Covalent Bonds

  • Ex. Carbon dioxide

    C has 4 valence electrons, needs to gain 4

    O has 6 valence electrons, needs to gain 2


Covalent bonds3
Covalent Bonds

Ex.

Cl has 7 valence electrons, bonds with another Cl to share 1 valence electron. Each atoms now has a full outer shell (8).

1 pair of shared valence electrons: Cl - Cl ; Cl2


Covalent bonds4
Covalent Bonds

  • Double bonds- two pairs of electrons are shared between atoms


Covalent bonds5
Covalent Bonds

  • Molecular Compounds- consist of molecules having covalently bonded atoms


Covalent bonds6
Covalent Bonds

  • Some atoms pull more strongly on the shared electrons that other atoms do. As a result, the electrons move closer to one atom, causing the atoms to have slight electrical charges.

  • Polar- a covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally

    Ex.


Covalent bonds7
Covalent Bonds

  • Nonpolar- the valence electrons are shared equally in a covalent bond

    Ex.


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