SPACE TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATION AND HEALTHCARE
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SPACE TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATION AND HEALTHCARE. TECHNOLOGIE SPATIALE POUR L’ÉDUCATION ET LES SOINS DE SANTÉ. INDO-AFRICAN CO-OPERATION. COOPÉRATION INDO-AFRICAINE. Pan African e-Network (Satellite, fiber and Wireless). V. PONRAJ Director (Technology Interface), President’s Office

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Space technology for education and healthcare

SPACE TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATION AND HEALTHCARE

TECHNOLOGIE SPATIALE POUR L’ÉDUCATION

ET LES SOINS DE SANTÉ

INDO-AFRICAN CO-OPERATION

COOPÉRATION INDO-AFRICAINE

Pan African e-Network

(Satellite, fiber and Wireless)

V. PONRAJ

Director (Technology Interface), President’s Office

Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi, India

[email protected]


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN-AFRICAN e-NETWORK Project

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

“…In honour of Indo-Pan African partnership our Government has decided to provide seamless and integrated satellite, fiber-optic and wireless network connecting 53 African countries for Tele-education, Tele-medicine and e-services. This will connect 5 Universities, 53 Learning centres, 10 Super specialty hospitals and 53 Patient-end locations in rural areas… Pan-African Parliament can form task teams for the speedy and smooth implementation of the program. We can jointly work together…”

His Excellency Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam

The President of India

During the inaugural session of the Second PAN-African Parliament session of AU on 16 Sept 2004


Space technology for education and healthcare

Son Excellence le Président d’Inde, Dr.A.P.J. Abdul Kalam pendant sa session inaugurale de Parlement Panafricain a dit –  

‘… En l’honneur de l’Indo-Panafricain partenariat notre Gouvernement a décidé de fournir le Satellite de continuité et intégré, les fibres optiques et le réseau sans fin joignant 53 pays africains pour la Télé-Éducation, Télémédecine et les E-Services. Ça unira aussi 5 Universités, 53 Centres d’Apprentissages, 10 Hôpitaux de Super Spécialités et 53 locations au côté du malade dans les régions rurales … Le Parlement Panafricain peut former les équipes de travail pour l’implémentation rapide et lisse du programme. Nous pouvons travailler ensemble en commun… ’


Space technology for education and healthcare

Highlights of the Project

Les Rehauts

  • 53 PAN-African countries are to be connected through Satellite and Fiber optics links - installation, operation and maintenance for 3 years.

  • 53 pays PANafricain seront être joints par le satellite et maillons de fibres optique – l’installation, l’opération et  l’entretien pour 3 ans.

    • The network will primarily provide tele-education, tele-medicine, Internet, videoconferencing and VOIP services and support e-governance, etc.

    • Le réseau fournira principalement la télé-éducation, la télémédecine, le réseau Internet, le Viso conférence et les Services de Voix sur IP et supporter Gouvernance en ligne, etc.

      • HUB - Linked to Internet backbone through an ISP.

      • Le concentrateur - lié au Réseau fédérateur d’Internet par une Voie d’entrée/sortie


Space technology for education and healthcare

Highlights of the Project

Les Rehauts

  • VVIP Connectivity - Internet, VOIP and videoconferencing.

  • Connectivité VVIP – Le Réseau Internet, les Services de Voix sur IP et la Viso Conférence

  • The configuration will initially support 20 concurrent voice (VOIP) and 4 concurrent videoconferencing sessions.

  • La configuration supportera initialement 20 concurrents Services de Voix sur IP et 4 sessions concurrentes de Viso Conférence

    • The network will connect 5 universities to 53 learning centers; 10 Super Specialty Hospitals to 53 Remote Hospitals (Patient-End locations) in rural areas.

    • Le réseau joindra 5 Universités aux 53 Centres d’Apprentissages ; 10 Hôpitaux de Super Spécialités aux 53 hôpitaux éloignés (locations au côté du malade) dans les régions rurales


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN-AFRICAN NETWORK – Overall Architecture

VSAT Network

53 Heads of States Network

Voice Over IP

Video Conference

Internet

HUB

Tele-Education

53 Learning Institutions

5 Universities

(3+2)

Tele-Medicine

53 Hospitals

10 SSHs

(7+3)


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN African - Heads of States Network

University

University

University

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

INTELSAT 904 – 60degree/

RASCOM Satellite

  • HEADS of STATES NETWORK

  • Connecting 53 countries Heads of the state and national parliament

  • VSAT based connectivity

  • Enables Virtual Meeting and discussion

  • Collaboration

  • Secured File sharing leading to e-governance

  • VOIP Network

  • Multimedia interaction

HUB Station

PAN Africa


Space technology for education and healthcare

TELE-EDUCATION

TÉLÉ-ÉDUCATION


Space technology for education and healthcare

TELE-EDUCATION CONCEPT

CONCEPT DE TÉLÉÉDUCATION

  • Quality education in primary, secondary and collegiate levels in developing countries is constrained by non-availability of skilled teachers.

  • Éducation de qualité dans les niveaux élémentaire, secondaire et collégial dans les pays en voie de développement contraint par le non-disponibilité des professeurs habiles.

  • Space communication, which is broadcast in nature can be used to spread education to any part of a country quickly and cost effectively.

  • La communication spatiale, qui est diffusé dans la nature peut être utilisé pour propager rapidement l’éducation au n’importe quelle région d’un pays rapidement et efficacement.


Space technology for education and healthcare

TELE-EDUCATION CONCEPT

CONCEPT DE TÉLÉÉDUCATION

  • Broadcasting or Interactive network.

  • Radiodiffusion ou réseau interactif.

  • The interaction could be audio/video.The schemes used are one-way video and two-way audio or two-way video and audio.

  • L’interaction peut être audio / vidéo unidirectionnel et audio bidirectionnel ou vidéo et audio bidirectionnel.

  • Broadcast Network is used for primary education since the size of the network is large. Interactive network for teachers training and higher levels of education.

  • Le réseau de la radiodiffusion est utilisé pour l’éducation élémentaire puisque la grandeur de réseau est vaste. Le réseau interactif pour l’entraînement des professeurs et pour les niveaux d’enseignement supérieurs.


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN African - Tele-Education Network – Overall Architecture

University

University

HUB Station

Ahamedabad

India

University

University

  • VSAT Hub at Selected PAN-African Country

  • Three African Universities

    connected to HUB through 2 mbps broadband/VSAT

  • 53 VSAT based Remote Virtual Class Rooms in 53 Countries

  • ISRO Hub at Ahamedabad

  • Two Universities

    connected to ISRO through 2 mbps broadband

University

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

INSAT 3A

INTELSAT 904 – 60degree

HUB Station

PAN Africa

SAT-3/WASC/SAFE CABLE ROUTE


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN African e-Network- Tele-Education

CONNETIVITY

Satellite, Broadband, Wireless Communication

Provides a highway for reaching Quality Education to all

Tele-Education Delivery System

A remote teacher can become a teacher to all remote Virtual Classrooms

Unique, Innovative and Creative Content and assimilation through animation

Lectures

Laboratory

Library

Books

Internet

Quality Content Generation

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

  • Digital Library integration

  • Content management

  • Internet Resource availability

  • Remote Virtual Classroom

  • Cost effective Connectivity

  • Universal Tele-education System

  • Multi-Class Environment

  • Seamless – two way connectivity

  • Synchronized multi-media delivery

Collaborativeenvironment


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN African - Tele-Education Network

Tele-Education Delivery System

  • 5 Universities

  • 53 remote Virtual Classrooms

  • Easily scalable

University Studio

Internet

B

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N

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t

w

o

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k

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www.presidentofindia.nic.in

Broadband

Remote Class / Teacher

Remote Class / Teacher

Remote Class / Teacher


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN African - Tele-Education Network Architecture requirement

Indian University Studio /Data Centre

INSAT 3A

INTELSAT 904 – 60degree

Africa University Studio /Data Centre

University

Africa University Studio /Data Centre

University

2 Mbps

Return bandwidth From

53 Remote VSATs each

Min 384 kbps – Max 512 kbps

Min 4 simultaneous link at a time

Unicast /Multicast support

HUB Station

Bangalore

India

2 Mbps

2 Mbps

University

2 Mbps Fiber/VSAT

University

Indian University Studio /Data Centre

  • VSAT Hub at Selected PAN-African Country

  • Three African Universities

    connected to HUB through 2 mbps broadband/VSAT

  • 53 VSAT based Remote Virtual Class Rooms in 53 Countries

SAFE Cable - Min 4 MB – MAX 8 MB

Africa University Studio /Data Centre

2 Mbps

University

HUB Station

PAN Africa

SAT-3/WASC/SAFE CABLE ROUTE

Uplink bandwidth From HUB

Min 5 mbps – Max 10 mbps

Broadcast /Multicast

DVB/IP

53 PAN-African Countries will be connected through VSAT Terminals in one identified location per country for setting up Remote Class Rooms

www.presidentofindia.nic.in


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN African - Tele-Education Network – Studio Configuration (Teacher End)

Internet

Tele-Education System

University Studio

Tele-Education System

Data Centre

Tele-Education Server

(Tele-Education/ Content Management/ Digital Library Server Software)

Web Server/ Application Server/ Data base Server

Clustered /Load balanced

SAN S/W

Backup Library

SAN

Storage

Teacher PC

Data

Audio Mixer

Video Switcher

PP/NLE

Video

NAS G/W

Audio


Space technology for education and healthcare

BENEFITS OF TELE-EDUCATION TO THE SOCIETY

BENEFICES DE TÉLÉ-ÉDUCATION À LA SOCIÉTÉ

  • High quality education can be imparted uniformly from a central teaching-end / studio where good quality teachers can be brought together.

    Éducation de qualité élevée peut être accorder uniformément d’un bout d’enseignement central / studio où les professeurs de qualité supérieurs peuvent être réunir.

    • Teachers can be trained periodically in the distance education mode.

      Les professeurs peuvent être instruits périodiquement dans le système d’éducation éloignée.


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN African - Tele-Education Network – Remote Classroom Configuration

Student End

VSAT based Remote

Class Room Configuration

University

  • Remote Class rooms are connected through VSAT for each PAN-African Countries

  • VSAT/IDU/ODU – 2.4 mtr C-band

  • Switch/ Personal Computer

  • Web Camera/ DVCAM

  • Video Capture Card

  • Wire Less Mike, External Speaker

  • LCD Projector

  • Remote Class Room – Tele-Education Software

  • 384 kbps – 512 kbps return bandwidth

University

University

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

INTELSAT 904 – 60degree

HUB Station

PAN Africa

SAT-3/WASC/SAFE CABLE ROUTE


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN African Network – Tele-Education ( Data Centre and Remote Configuration)

53 Remote Virtual

Classrooms in

53 PAN African

Countries each

Internet

Remote 1

Central

HUB

Router

MODEM

Fiber

Cable

10/100/1000 S/W

Router

Remote 2

Web Server Cluster

Application

Server cluster

DB

Server

Remote . . N

SAN S/W

SAN

Storage

1 TB

NAS

Gateway

1 TB

Block I/O

File Storage

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

University DATA Center


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN African Network – Digital Library

Tele-Education System

www.presidentofindia.nic.in


Space technology for education and healthcare

Virtual University - Through Universal Tele-Education

CORE COMPETENCE

Central HUB of all

Universities

Remote Class rooms

  • Universities

  • Other Institutions

  • International

    Institutions

Online Tele-Education

  • Virtual Interaction

  • Live sessions

  • Effective Two way

    communication

  • Synchronized

    Multimedia

  • Collaboration

  • Coordinate

  • Organize

  • Schedule

  • Broadcast

  • Manage

  • Maintain

  • Infrastructure - Storage

  • Delivery through

    • E-learning

    • Tele-education

  • Identification of Experts

  • Content Development

  • Content Generation

  • Content Workflow

  • Content Deployment

  • Delivery through

    • e-Learning

    • Tele-Education

  • Digital Library

Beneficiaries

  • Affiliated Colleges

  • Study Centres

  • Learning centres

  • Individual Students

  • Village Panchayat

    Knowledge Centres

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

VSAT for Remote

Access, BROADBAND

FIBRE OPTICS to

to connect major cities

WIRELESS for Last mile


Space technology for education and healthcare

BENEFITS OF TELE-EDUCATION TO THE SOCIETY

BENEFICES DE TÉLÉ-ÉDUCATION À LA SOCIÉTÉ

  • University education through a space based interactive network can make “learn from the place you want and at the speed you want” a reality.

    Études supérieures au moyen d’un réseau interactif fondé sur l’espace peuvent devenir une réalité – « Apprendre de la localité vous voulez et à la vitesse vous voulez ! ».

  • This can be used for informal education and adult literacy to improve the literacy levels of the community.

    Ça peut être utilisé pour l’éducation sans cérémonie et pour la littératie adulte pour améliorer les niveaux de littératies de la communauté.


Space technology for education and healthcare

TELEMEDICINE

TÉLÉMÉDECINE


Telemedicine t l m decine

TelemedicineTélémédecine

“Delivery of healthcare services to the rural and remote population by specialist doctors from a distance, using information and communication technologies for the exchange of information”

Medical

Science

Communication

Technology

“Délivrance des services de soins à la population rurale et distante par les Docteurs Spécialistes d’une distance, en employant les technologies de l’information et de la communication pour l’échange de l’information  ”

TELEMEDICINE

Biomedical

Engineering

Information

Technology


Telemedicine benefits to society les b n fices de t l m decine la soci t

Telemedicine Benefits to SocietyLes Bénéfices de Télémédecine à la Société

  • Improved Access/Accès Amélioré

  • Access to health care to distant & remote areas

    Accès aux soins de santé aux régions distantes et éloignées

    • Accelerate diagnosis & treatment by reducing time for the needy patients without long travel,waiting, etc.

      Accélérer le diagnostic et le traitement en réduisant les temps pour les malades nécessiteux sans le voyage long, sans attente, etc.


Space technology for education and healthcare

Telemedicine Benefits to Society

Les Bénéfices de Télémédecine à la Société

  • 2. Reduced Cost / Coût Réduit

  • Reduced necessity/cost of travel for patient & relatives

  • Nécessité réduit / dépens de voyage pour le malade et les parentés

    • 3. Reduced Isolation / Isolation Réduite

    • Reduced professional isolation for rural doctors

      Isolation professionnelle réduite pour les Docteurs ruraux


Space technology for education and healthcare

Telemedicine Benefits to Society

Les Bénéfices de Télémédecine à la Société

  • 4. Improved Quality of Care / Qualité de Soin Amélioré

  • Enhanced decision making between patients & specialist doctor

  • Prise de décision augmentée entre les malades et le médecin spécialiste


Telemedicine via satellite

TELEMEDICINE VIA SATELLITE

Extension education for Doctors in rural/remote areas

Reaching the un-reached

Remote Hospitals

Super Speciality Hospital

Video Conferencing

Cardiology

Pathology

Video Conferencing

Panel of Doctors

Rural/ Remote/ Inaccessible


T l m decine via satellite

TÉLÉMÉDECINE VIA SATELLITE

Extension d’Éducation pour les Docteurs dans les Régions Rurales / Distantes

Atteignant le non atteint

Hôpital Éloigné

Hôpital de

Super Spécialité

Visio Conférence

Cardiologie

Pathologie

Visio Conférence

Rural/

Distant/Inaccessible

Comité des Docteurs


Space technology for education and healthcare

Major Applications of Telemedicine Technology

Applications Majeures de la Technologie

de Télémédecine

  • Tele-consultation

  • Tele-diagnosis

  • Tele-treatment

Patient with the local doctor consults the specialists for treatment

Télé consultation Malade avec le

Télédiagnostic Docteur local

Télétraitement consulte les

spécialistes pour le

traitement


Space technology for education and healthcare

Major Applications of Telemedicine Technology

Applications Majeures de la Technologie

de Télémédecine

Continuing Medical Education, training for Doctors & paramedics

  • Tele-education

  • Tele-training

  • Tele-monitoring

  • Tele-support

Emergency care

Disaster Management/Relief

  • Tele-monitoring

  • Tele-support

Soins d’Urgence

Organisation des

Opérations à la Suite

de Catastrophes / Relief


Space technology for education and healthcare

Indian Telemedicine Program - Thrust AreasProgramme de Télémédecine indienne- Aires de Concentration

  • Continuing Medical education (CME)

    Continu d’enseignement infirmier (CME)

  • Mobile telemedicine units

    Unité télémédecine mobile

  • Disaster Management Support (DMS)

    Support à l’organisation des opérations à la suit de catastrophes (DMS)


Space technology for education and healthcare

A typical Telemedicine Centre in operation

in Southern India

Un centre typique de télémédecine en vigueur dans l’Inde du sud

25 Super Specialty Hospitals in India are providing

Tele-Medicine, Tele-Consultancy to more than 500 remote villages, hill regions & islands of India


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN-AFRICAN e-NETWORK - Status

India Submitted its proposal to African Union by MAY 2005

Live Demonstration on Tele-Education and Tele-Medicine programmes to 28 Ambassadors of PAN-AFRICAN COUNTRIES in India during JUN 2005.

African Union has constituted a Technical Committee to study, review and suggest during 20-22 JUL 2005

AU Technical Committee consists of 21 organisations from AU and other world wide institutions such as AU, WHO, ATU, ITU, AVU, NEPAD, RASCOM, URTNA, UEMOA, INTIF, PAPU, ECCAS, IGAD, CONESSA, ADB, CTO, WHO etchad detailed deliberation with the representatives from the Government of India (Ministry of External Affairs, President’s Office, ISRO, TCIL and IGNOU).

RASCOM perfectly suites the configuration of PAN-African e-Network and will be the Satellite platform for this network. Till the time, available satellite will be used.

Collaboration with European countries are envisaged for the project – content and value added services.

www.presidentofindia.nic.in


Space technology for education and healthcare

PAN-AFRICAN e-NETWORK - Status

  • AU Technical committee recommended for the projects adoption.

  • In its recommendation to AU, the committee observed that

    “Government of India has provided a great proposal which is in line with the mission and objectives of the African Union and provides tremendous potential for achieving the MDG (Millennium Development Goals) through the use of innovative ICT.”

  • Signing of MOU between AU and India is in process and it is expected to be completed by OCT 2005 and then the project starts and will be completed in a record time of 12 months.

  • Pilot Project will be established at Addis Ababa – OCT – DEC 2005.

  • India’s contribution for the promotion of African connectivity and the value added services in education, healthcare, e-governance, agriculture will certainly assist the capacity building measures of the African Union.

  • India is also a partner to the African Union Millennium Development Goals and committed for its promotion.

www.presidentofindia.nic.in


Space technology for education and healthcare

  • INDIA’s Experience in

  • High bandwidth networking

  • Tele-Education

  • Tele-Medicine

  • Rural Connectivities for Sustainable Development


Space technology for education and healthcare

Tele-Education – Broadband (Fiber and WiMAX)

  • India is having large cluster of servers, Parallel Computers, Super Computers in the R&D labs and institutions

  • India’s R&D Labs and Academic institutions are upgraded to Gigabit links from 100 mbps connectivity now.

  • IIT’s, NITs, IISc and R&D labs are getting connected using 10 GB Links or more for Academic Research and collaborative programmes.

  • Reputed universities are joining together and offering joint courses, research programmes, faculty and student exchange programmes through Virtual University initiatives.

  • BSNL – Fiber broadband reached up to block level connecting states and district using min. 10 GB network.

  • PVT ISP’s – reached the whole nation through fiber broadband links

  • Pre WiMAX installations are now started connecting the villages providing last mile access

CONNETIVITY

Broadband

Provides a highway for reaching

Quality Education to all


Space technology for education and healthcare

EDUSAT - INDIA

  • EDUSAT ku-band and Ext C-Band

  • 5 regional beams and one national beam

  • 52 uplinks in all beams with 4074 Terminals planned now.

  • 50,000 terminals in 2 years

  • 1.5 lakhs remote terminals (Full potential)

  • Min 2 mbps uplink – Min 384 return bandwidth - Multimedia applications

  • 500 SIT terminals are operational, 500 SIT are under installation.

    • IGNOU

    • VTU

    • RTU

    • CIET

    • CEC/UGC

    • AICTE

    • CBSE, Teacher Training Institutions

    • 14 States – national and regional beams

B

a

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N

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t

w

o

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k

s

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

Up to 2 mbps

Multiple Studio Network

Up to 128 kbps

Up to 128 kbps

Internet

1 … N- University Studios

Remote Class / Teacher

Broadband

Broadband Remote Class

VSAT - Remote Class / Teacher


Space technology for education and healthcare

PURA – Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

  • Ring Road

  • Rail

  • Public Infrastructure

  • Telecom

  • Internet

  • E-Governance

  • Tele-medicine

  • Tele-education

Physical Connectivity

Economic

Connectivity

  • Warehouse

  • Agro-Industries

  • Markets

  • Hospital

  • Micro Power Plant

  • Coop. Product

  • Mktg.

Electronic

Connectivity

Knowledge

Connectivity

Spiritual Connectivity

  • 10-15 Village Clusters

  • 50-100 Crore investment

  • Business Proposition

  • Employment for 3000 persons

  • Beneficiaries : 30,000 – 100,000

  • people

  • Schools

  • IRS Imagery for

  • - Land & Crop Mgmt

  • - Water Mgmt

  • - Forest Mgmt

  • - Environment

  • Proactive Health care

  • Manufacturing

  • Enlightened Citizenship

  • Moral Leadership

JOINT PRIVATE – PUBLIC EMPOWERED BODIES


Space technology for education and healthcare

PHYSICAL CONNECTIVITY

Periyar PURA

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

SATELLITE VILLAGES

  • 65 villages

  • 3 lakh population

  • Road connectivity

  • Internet Kiosk (VKC)

www.pmctech.edu

HUB of Periyar PURA

Periyar Maniammai Women's

Engineering College,

Vallam, Tanjore, TN

ELECTRONIC CONNECTIVITY

Leading to

Sustainable Development

SATELLITE VILLAGES


Space technology for education and healthcare

Provided Knowledge Connectivity Leading to Economic Connectivity

Periyar PURA

Production Training to Periyar PURA villagers - PMCTW, Vallam

Periyar PURA Hollow Block training unit – PMCTW, Vallam

Thanjavur Dist. Collector Visiting the Training program to Periyar PURA villages

Periyar PURA villagers training on Tiles making – PMCTW, Vallam

Fiber Door making training to Periyar PURA villagers – PMCTW, Vallam

Periyar PURA - Polio identification camp - Sengipatti

Periyar PURA villagers visit Jatropha curcus Plants ( Bio Diesal )

Solar Power

Bio-mass

Power

Vermi Composting

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

  • Created 850 Self Help Groups in 65 villages

  • Provided Vocational and Skill Development training on

    • Dairy Farming, Biomass

    • Vermi Composting, Dry Land Cultivation

    • Entrepreneurial Training to create SSI Units

    • Bio-Mass Power and Solar Lighting

  • Established Renewable Energy based units

  • Six percolation ponds and five check dams to harness the rain water amounting to 2.73 lakh cubic meter per year – supporting the irrigation of 300 acres of land

  • More than 5000 farmers are benefiting

  • It has brought number of employment generation schemes – such as

    • Tiles making, Sanitary items

    • Alternative building blocks, Hallow blocks

  • Health Care services through Mobile Medical Van facility to 65 villages

Connectivity and Employment Generation is the Focus : Leading to Sustainable Development


Space technology for education and healthcare

Level-3

Agricultural Experts from Universities/Institutions

Kisan Call Centre – 8 States – 83 Seats

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

Level-2

5 Lakh Calls

From Farmers,

Fishermen

Last one year

Level-1

Dial 1551 – Toll Free


Space technology for education and healthcare

PURA Knowledge Connectivity : For Sustainable Development

Regional/Zonal/Block PURA Cluster Knowledge Data Centers

PURA Nodal

Knowledge Data Centre

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

KISAN CALL

Centre

Meteorology

Ocean

Development

Entrepreneur

Development

Travel &

Tourism

Domain Service Providers/ Data collection/ Updation

Village Knowledge Centres

Banking &

Insurance

Disaster Warning

System

Education

Health Care


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