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Hope & Optimism: A Synthesis. Kevin L. Rand Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis. Hope & Optimism are Good. Hope Optimism.  Depressive Symptoms xx  Anxiety Symptoms xx  Positive emotions xx Positive appraisal of stressx x  Adaptive coping xx

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Hope & Optimism: A Synthesis

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Hope & Optimism: A Synthesis

Kevin L. Rand

Indiana University – Purdue University

Indianapolis


Hope & Optimism are Good

Hope Optimism

  •  Depressive Symptomsxx

  •  Anxiety Symptoms xx

  •  Positive emotionsxx

  • Positive appraisal of stressx x

  •  Adaptive copingxx

  •  Academic performancexx

  •  Athletic performancex

  •  Post-illness adjustmentxx

  •  Pain tolerancex


Are Hope & Optimism the Same?

  • Hope & Optimism strongly associated

    • r ~ .50 (Snyder et al., 1991)

    • r ~ .80 in latent space (Bryant & Cvengros, 2004)

  • Similar patterns of association

    • Aspinwall & Leaf (2002)

  • Frequently conflated in literature

    • Peterson & Seligman (2004)

  • There is a need to clarify distinctions

    • Tennen, Affleck, & Tennen (2002)


Distinguishing Hope & Optimism

  • Magaletta & Oliver (1999)

    • EFA: pathways, agency, optimism, & self-efficacy are distinct

    • Hope scores predicted general well-being beyond optimism & self-efficacy

  • Bryant & Cvengros (2004)

    • CFA: hope & optimism are distinct, 2nd-order constructs

    • Hope =  self-efficacy

    • Optimism =  positive reappraisal


Synthesizing Hope & Optimism

Distinguishing Hope & Optimism

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT9

LOT7

Negative

Exp.

Positive

Exp.

Optimism

?

Hope

Agency

Pathways

AHS1

AHS6

AHS8

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

AHS4

AHS2


Study Method

  • Sample

    • 345 students in undergraduate psychology class

    • 59.4% female; 78.6% Caucasian

    • Mean age = 19.77 years (SD = 2.29 years)

  • Measures

    • Hope (AHS), Optimism (LOT-R)

    • High School GPA

    • Grade Expectancy (e.g., “I predict my final grade = 70%”)

    • Final Class Grade

  • Procedure

    • Start of semester: Self-report questionnaire

    • End of semester: course grade from instructor


.67

.66

.45

.65

.27

.50

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT9

LOT7

.74

.85

.57

.59

.59

.71

.04

.34

1.0*

Negative

Exp.

Positive

Exp.

-.81**

.98*

HS

GPA

.25

Optimism

.24

1.0*

.87

.25

Goal

Attitude

.22

Class

Grade

.22

.87

.19

Hope

.77*

.31

.24

Grade

Exp.

.72*

.98*

.82*

Agency

Pathways

.49

.04

2(113, n=312) = 202.49;

RMSEA = .052;

SRMR=.050;

CFI=.97

.49

.48

.44

.66

.58

.68

.79

.70

AHS1

AHS6

AHS8

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

AHS4

AHS2

.77

.81

.56

.66

.54

.76

.38

.51


Synthesized Model of Hope & Optimism

  • Goal Attitude: Global belief that the act of pursuing goals is worth the effort required to do so

  • Goal Attitude has two facets:

    • Hope = Beliefs about the self

      • Pathways = Appraisal of one’s abilities

      • Agency = Appraisal of one’s available energy/motivation

    • Optimism = Beliefs about the world

      • Positive Expectancy = There are good things in the world to approach

      • Negative Expectancy = There are bad things in the world to avoid


Future Questions

  • Does optimism uniquely influence expectancies for events perceived to be outside of one’s control?

  • Are hope and optimism influenced by attachment?

    • Avoidance vs. Anxiety

  • Do hope and optimism have separate mechanisms for influencing well-being?

    • Appraisals

      • Optimism → Primary Appraisal

      • Hope → Secondary Appraisal

    • Coping

      • Optimism → Mental Accommodation

      • Hope → Problem Solving


Extra Slides


Adult Hope Scale

HOW TRUE IS EACH STATEMENT OF YOU

1= Definitely False 4= Slightly False 5= Slightly True 8= Definitely True

___ 1. I can think of many way to get out of a jam. P

___ 2. There are lots of ways around any problem. P

___ 3. I can think of many ways to get the things in life that

are important to me. P

___ 4. Even when others get discouraged, I know I can find

a way to solve the problem. P

___ 5. I energetically pursue my goals. A

___ 6. My past experiences have prepared me well for my

future. A

___ 7. I’ve been pretty successful in life. A

___ 8. I meet the goals that I set for myself. A


Life Orientation Test-Revised

To what extent is each item generally true for you

1= Not True……………………………………………………5= Very True

___ 1. In uncertain times, I usually expect the best. O

___ 2. I’m always optimistic about my future. O

___ 3. Overall I expect more good things to happen to me than bad. O

___ 4. If something can go wrong for me it will. P

___ 5. I hardly ever expect things to go my way. P

___ 6. I rarely count on good things happening to me. P


Theoretical Overlap

Hope Optimism

  • Cognitively-based traitxx

  • Future orientedxx

  • Expectancy-value modelxx

  • Explicit internal influence xx

  • Explicit external influencex

  • Explicit emotional etiologyx

  • Influence appraisalsxx

  • Influence coping responsesxx

  • Influence well-beingxx


.65

.62

.57

.68

.60

.51

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT7

LOT9

.59

.62

.66

-.57

-.63

-.70

2(77, n=360) = 505.10;

RMSEA = .12; GFI = .83;

NNFI = .86; CFI=.88

Future

Orientation

1.0*

.41

.57

.43

.64

.56

.48

.37

.63

AHS1

AHS6

AHS4

AHS8

AHS2

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

.83

.68

.81

.59

.69

.77

.86

.60


.60

.58

.48

.54

.35

.31

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT7

LOT9

.64

.65

.72

.68

.81

.83

1.0*

1.0*

-.44

.68

Pessimism

Optimism

2(71, n=360) = 180.74;

RMSEA = .07;

GFI = .93;

NNFI = .95; CFI=.96

-.80

-.56

.68

.65

Pathways

1.0*

1.0*

Agency

.61

.66

.55

.73

.71

.66

.55

.73

AHS1

AHS6

AHS4

AHS8

AHS2

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

.63

.57

.70

.46

.49

.56

.69

.47


.58

.58

.47

.54

.35

.32

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT9

LOT7

.73

.81

.65

.65

.68

.82

.16

.34

Pessimism

Optimism

-.81**

.92*

2(72, n=360) = 188.93;

RMSEA = .067;

GFI = .98;

NNFI = .96;

CFI=.97

General

Optimism

1.0*

.82

Hope

1.0*

.77*

.84*

Agency

Pathways

.41

.29

.54

.54

.61

.73

.65

.66

.73

.71

AHS1

AHS6

AHS8

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

AHS4

AHS2

.70

.63

.47

.57

.57

.70

.46

.50


.57

.57

.49

.54

.35

.32

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT9

LOT7

.71

.81

.65

.66

.68

.82

.16

.40

Pessimism

Optimism

-.77**

.92*

2(73, n=360) = 219.02;

RMSEA = .075;

GFI = .97;

NNFI = .94;

CFI=.95;

2(1, n=360) = 30.09, p < .001

General

Optimism

1.0*

1.0*

Hope

1.0*

.70*

.75*

Agency

Pathways

.51

.44

.54

.57

.62

.71

.65

.65

.74

.71

AHS1

AHS6

AHS8

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

AHS4

AHS2

.68

.61

.49

.57

.58

.71

.45

.49


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