Hope optimism a synthesis
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Hope & Optimism: A Synthesis. Kevin L. Rand Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis. Hope & Optimism are Good. Hope Optimism.  Depressive Symptoms xx  Anxiety Symptoms xx  Positive emotions xx Positive appraisal of stressx x  Adaptive coping xx

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Hope & Optimism: A Synthesis

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Hope optimism a synthesis

Hope & Optimism: A Synthesis

Kevin L. Rand

Indiana University – Purdue University

Indianapolis


Hope optimism are good

Hope & Optimism are Good

Hope Optimism

  •  Depressive Symptomsxx

  •  Anxiety Symptoms xx

  •  Positive emotionsxx

  • Positive appraisal of stressx x

  •  Adaptive copingxx

  •  Academic performancexx

  •  Athletic performancex

  •  Post-illness adjustmentxx

  •  Pain tolerancex


Are hope optimism the same

Are Hope & Optimism the Same?

  • Hope & Optimism strongly associated

    • r ~ .50 (Snyder et al., 1991)

    • r ~ .80 in latent space (Bryant & Cvengros, 2004)

  • Similar patterns of association

    • Aspinwall & Leaf (2002)

  • Frequently conflated in literature

    • Peterson & Seligman (2004)

  • There is a need to clarify distinctions

    • Tennen, Affleck, & Tennen (2002)


Distinguishing hope optimism

Distinguishing Hope & Optimism

  • Magaletta & Oliver (1999)

    • EFA: pathways, agency, optimism, & self-efficacy are distinct

    • Hope scores predicted general well-being beyond optimism & self-efficacy

  • Bryant & Cvengros (2004)

    • CFA: hope & optimism are distinct, 2nd-order constructs

    • Hope =  self-efficacy

    • Optimism =  positive reappraisal


Distinguishing hope optimism1

Synthesizing Hope & Optimism

Distinguishing Hope & Optimism

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT9

LOT7

Negative

Exp.

Positive

Exp.

Optimism

?

Hope

Agency

Pathways

AHS1

AHS6

AHS8

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

AHS4

AHS2


Study method

Study Method

  • Sample

    • 345 students in undergraduate psychology class

    • 59.4% female; 78.6% Caucasian

    • Mean age = 19.77 years (SD = 2.29 years)

  • Measures

    • Hope (AHS), Optimism (LOT-R)

    • High School GPA

    • Grade Expectancy (e.g., “I predict my final grade = 70%”)

    • Final Class Grade

  • Procedure

    • Start of semester: Self-report questionnaire

    • End of semester: course grade from instructor


Hope optimism a synthesis

.67

.66

.45

.65

.27

.50

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT9

LOT7

.74

.85

.57

.59

.59

.71

.04

.34

1.0*

Negative

Exp.

Positive

Exp.

-.81**

.98*

HS

GPA

.25

Optimism

.24

1.0*

.87

.25

Goal

Attitude

.22

Class

Grade

.22

.87

.19

Hope

.77*

.31

.24

Grade

Exp.

.72*

.98*

.82*

Agency

Pathways

.49

.04

2(113, n=312) = 202.49;

RMSEA = .052;

SRMR=.050;

CFI=.97

.49

.48

.44

.66

.58

.68

.79

.70

AHS1

AHS6

AHS8

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

AHS4

AHS2

.77

.81

.56

.66

.54

.76

.38

.51


Synthesized model of hope optimism

Synthesized Model of Hope & Optimism

  • Goal Attitude: Global belief that the act of pursuing goals is worth the effort required to do so

  • Goal Attitude has two facets:

    • Hope = Beliefs about the self

      • Pathways = Appraisal of one’s abilities

      • Agency = Appraisal of one’s available energy/motivation

    • Optimism = Beliefs about the world

      • Positive Expectancy = There are good things in the world to approach

      • Negative Expectancy = There are bad things in the world to avoid


Future questions

Future Questions

  • Does optimism uniquely influence expectancies for events perceived to be outside of one’s control?

  • Are hope and optimism influenced by attachment?

    • Avoidance vs. Anxiety

  • Do hope and optimism have separate mechanisms for influencing well-being?

    • Appraisals

      • Optimism → Primary Appraisal

      • Hope → Secondary Appraisal

    • Coping

      • Optimism → Mental Accommodation

      • Hope → Problem Solving


Extra slides

Extra Slides


Hope optimism a synthesis

Adult Hope Scale

HOW TRUE IS EACH STATEMENT OF YOU

1= Definitely False 4= Slightly False 5= Slightly True 8= Definitely True

___ 1. I can think of many way to get out of a jam. P

___ 2. There are lots of ways around any problem. P

___ 3. I can think of many ways to get the things in life that

are important to me. P

___ 4. Even when others get discouraged, I know I can find

a way to solve the problem. P

___ 5. I energetically pursue my goals. A

___ 6. My past experiences have prepared me well for my

future. A

___ 7. I’ve been pretty successful in life. A

___ 8. I meet the goals that I set for myself. A


Hope optimism a synthesis

Life Orientation Test-Revised

To what extent is each item generally true for you

1= Not True……………………………………………………5= Very True

___ 1. In uncertain times, I usually expect the best. O

___ 2. I’m always optimistic about my future. O

___ 3. Overall I expect more good things to happen to me than bad. O

___ 4. If something can go wrong for me it will. P

___ 5. I hardly ever expect things to go my way. P

___ 6. I rarely count on good things happening to me. P


Theoretical overlap

Theoretical Overlap

Hope Optimism

  • Cognitively-based traitxx

  • Future orientedxx

  • Expectancy-value modelxx

  • Explicit internal influence xx

  • Explicit external influencex

  • Explicit emotional etiologyx

  • Influence appraisalsxx

  • Influence coping responsesxx

  • Influence well-beingxx


Hope optimism a synthesis

.65

.62

.57

.68

.60

.51

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT7

LOT9

.59

.62

.66

-.57

-.63

-.70

2(77, n=360) = 505.10;

RMSEA = .12; GFI = .83;

NNFI = .86; CFI=.88

Future

Orientation

1.0*

.41

.57

.43

.64

.56

.48

.37

.63

AHS1

AHS6

AHS4

AHS8

AHS2

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

.83

.68

.81

.59

.69

.77

.86

.60


Hope optimism a synthesis

.60

.58

.48

.54

.35

.31

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT7

LOT9

.64

.65

.72

.68

.81

.83

1.0*

1.0*

-.44

.68

Pessimism

Optimism

2(71, n=360) = 180.74;

RMSEA = .07;

GFI = .93;

NNFI = .95; CFI=.96

-.80

-.56

.68

.65

Pathways

1.0*

1.0*

Agency

.61

.66

.55

.73

.71

.66

.55

.73

AHS1

AHS6

AHS4

AHS8

AHS2

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

.63

.57

.70

.46

.49

.56

.69

.47


Hope optimism a synthesis

.58

.58

.47

.54

.35

.32

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT9

LOT7

.73

.81

.65

.65

.68

.82

.16

.34

Pessimism

Optimism

-.81**

.92*

2(72, n=360) = 188.93;

RMSEA = .067;

GFI = .98;

NNFI = .96;

CFI=.97

General

Optimism

1.0*

.82

Hope

1.0*

.77*

.84*

Agency

Pathways

.41

.29

.54

.54

.61

.73

.65

.66

.73

.71

AHS1

AHS6

AHS8

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

AHS4

AHS2

.70

.63

.47

.57

.57

.70

.46

.50


Hope optimism a synthesis

.57

.57

.49

.54

.35

.32

LOT1

LOT4

LOT10

LOT3

LOT9

LOT7

.71

.81

.65

.66

.68

.82

.16

.40

Pessimism

Optimism

-.77**

.92*

2(73, n=360) = 219.02;

RMSEA = .075;

GFI = .97;

NNFI = .94;

CFI=.95;

2(1, n=360) = 30.09, p < .001

General

Optimism

1.0*

1.0*

Hope

1.0*

.70*

.75*

Agency

Pathways

.51

.44

.54

.57

.62

.71

.65

.65

.74

.71

AHS1

AHS6

AHS8

AHS9

AHS10

AHS12

AHS4

AHS2

.68

.61

.49

.57

.58

.71

.45

.49


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