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CHAPTER 1. HONORS BIOLOGY. I. BIOLOGY. Study of life and how living organisms interact with their environment Because encompasses so much, scientists have created hierarchy of organization. Hierarchy of organization. Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism Organ System

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Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1

HONORS

BIOLOGY


I biology

I. BIOLOGY

  • Study of life and how living organisms interact with their environment

  • Because encompasses so much, scientists have created hierarchy of organization


Hierarchy of organization

Hierarchy of organization

  • Biosphere

  • Ecosystem

  • Community

  • Population

  • Organism

  • Organ System

  • Organs

  • Tissues

  • Cell

  • Organelle

  • Molecules

  • Atoms


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Biosphere

Ecosystem

Community

Population

Organism

Organ systems

Organs

Tissues

Cells

organelles

Atoms/

molecules


Ii living organisms their environment

II. Living Organisms & their Environment

  • Interactions of organisms with environment make up a web or relationship within ecosystem

    • Ex. Producers, consumers, decomposers

  • Success of ecosystem depends on:

    • Recycling of chemical nutrients - nonliving, required for life

    • Recycling of chemical nrg - enters as light exits as heat


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Producers

(such as plants)

Cycling

of

chemical

nutrients

Heat

Chemical energy

Consumers

(such as animals

Heat


Iii cells basic unit of life

III. Cells - Basic Unit of Life

  • Cells are the basic unit of life because

    • Make up all living organisms

    • Smallest structure that can perform all activities needed to live


Types of cells

Types of Cells

  • Prokaryotic

    pro-

    karyote -

    anucleated

    No membranous organelles


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  • Eukaryotic

    Eu -

    Karyotic -

    Nucleated, more complex, larger


Iv unity of life

IV. Unity of Life

  • All living organisms have common denominator --- DNA

  • Structure

    • Double helix

    • 5 carbon sugar

    • Phosphate

    • Nitrogen base (A,T,C,G)

  • Function -

    • Instructions for cells activities

    • Blueprint of life

    • Order of bases are important


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Nucleotide

Single strand of DNA


V characteristics of life

V. Characteristics of Life

  • 7 Characterics all living things share

    • Heirarchy / Order

    • Homeostasis / Regulation

    • Growth/development

    • Metabolism / nrg processing

    • Respond to env.

    • Reproduce

    • Evolve


Vi diversity of life

VI. Diversity of Life

  • Diversity results from the difference in the structure of DNA (order of bases)

  • Approx 1.8 million known species

  • Scientists believe 10 - 200 million exist

  • To organize and classify all these organisms scientists use TAXONOMY (name and classify organisms)


Heirarchy of organization

Heirarchy of Organization

  • D

  • K

  • P

  • C

  • O

  • F

  • G

  • S


3 domains 6 kingdoms

3 Domains/ 6 kingdoms

  • Bacteria - prok.simple, most unicellular

    • Includes eubcteria kingdom

  • Archae - prok., simple, most unicellular, live in harsh conditions

    • Includes archaebacteria kingdom

  • Eukarya - euk.

    • Includes protists, animalia, plant, fungus kingdoms

      All these domains are interconnected through web of life


Bacteria

bacteria


Archaebacteria

archaebacteria


Eukarya

eukarya


Vii evolution

VII. Evolution

Evolution occurs as a result of diversity

Evolution- change in a population over time


Charles darwin

CHARLES DARWIN

Father of evolution -

Published a book

“On Origin of Species b Means of Natural Selection”


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2 main points of theory of evolution:

1. Descent with Modification:

all living species descended from a common ancestor, but changed over time(descent with modification to adopt to environment.


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2. Natural Selection

2 concepts of natural selection

  • Individuals within a population have variety which allows them to survive in the environment

  • Overproduction and competition - population produce more offspring then will survive, with more individuals in env. competition occurs (natural selection)


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D

A

R

W

I

N


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Natural

Selection


Viii how do scientists learn

VIII. How Do Scientists Learn?

  • Science - “to know”

  • 2 approaches to study science

    • Discovery Based Science

    • Hypothesis based Science


A discovery based science

A. Discovery Based Science

  • Describes nature

  • Uses observations and measurements

  • Describes natural phenomenon

  • Based on INDUCTIVE reasoning (observations)

  • Ex. Because can see cells under a microscope in all living organisms, conclude that all living organisms are made of cells


B hypothesis based science

B. Hypothesis Based Science

  • Propose and test a hypothesis

  • Leads to prediction to be tested (if then statements)

  • Based on Deductive Reasoning (general to specific)

    Ex. IF all organisms are made of cells THEN humans are made of cells


Steps to hypothesis based science

Steps to hypothesis based science

  • Scientific Method - sequence of steps to solve a scientific problem

  • 6 basic steps

  • Used by all scientists to create a standard to communicate results.

    Sharing Information

  • Publication

  • Peer reviewed publication


Types of experiments

Types of Experiments

  • Blind study- patient does not know if getting medicine or not

    • Eliminates bias on patient part

  • Double Blind -

    • Patient and scientists does not know if getting the real medicine or placebo

    • Eliminates bias on both sides


Steps of scientific method

Steps of Scientific Method

  • P

  • I

  • H

  • E

  • D

  • C


Laws and theories

Laws and Theories

  • Theory - hypothesis tested over long time. Can be modified

    • Ex. Theory of evolution …….

  • Law - Theory tested over long period of time.

    • Newton’s laws……


Xi bio connected to our lives

XI. Bio Connected to our Lives

  • It explains

    • relationship b/t all living organisms

    • Diversity of organisms

    • How the env. Affects organisms and their change

    • How science and technology are interdependent


Science and tech interdep

Science and tech. interdep.

  • How science and technology are interdependent

    ex.

  • Food - genetically modified

  • Air and water pollution

  • Cloning/stem cell

  • Nutritional supplements

  • Medical technology

  • Genetic engineering (vaccines, cures, etc…)

  • medicine to help us live longer and healthier

  • Living longer and healthier - good or bad?


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