Earth s climate systems
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Earth’s Climate Systems. What is the difference between weather and climate?. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at any given place. Climate is the consistent, long-term behavior of weather over time. Climate Factors. H. Statistical Analysis of 30 years of data Insolation

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Earth’s Climate Systems

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Earth s climate systems

Earth’s Climate Systems


What is the difference between weather and climate

What is the difference between weather and climate?

  • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at any given place.

  • Climate is the consistent, long-term behavior of weather over time.


Climate factors

Climate Factors

  • H

Statistical Analysis of 30 years of data

  • Insolation

  • Temperature

  • Pressure

  • Air Masses

  • Precipitation

H

L


5 climate regions

5 Climate Regions

  • Tropical

  • Dry

  • Mid latitude

  • High Latitude

  • Highlands


Tropical climates

Tropical Climates

  • Tropical Wet

    • Avg temp 80 degrees F

    • Daily rain

    • 80 in/year

    • Wildlife abundant

    • Tropical rainforest veg

    • Amazon Basin, S. Am, Asia Caribbean, Africa

  • Tropical Dry

    • Dry winters, wet summers

    • High yearly temps

    • Savannas

    • Africa, central - S Am., Australia


  • Dry climates

    Dry Climates

    • Desert

      • < 10 in. rain/yr

      • Day/night temps vary

      • 1/3 of world’s land

      • Veg = scrub, cactus

      • Dunes, rocky surfaces

      • Where???

  • Steppes

    • Dry, treeless

    • 10 – 20 in. rain/year

    • Where???


  • Mid latitude climates

    Mid latitude Climates

    • Marine West Coast

      • 30 - 60 N/S

      • Western coastlines

      • Cool summers, cool damp winters

      • Veg = Coniferous, Deciduous, mixed forest

  • Mediterranean

    • Mild, rainy winters

    • hot., sunny summers

    • Veg = woody bushes, short trees,

    • Where?


  • Earth s climate systems

    • Humid Subtropical

      • Short, mild winters

      • Year round rain, high humidityb/c of oceans

      • Veg = prairies, forests

      • Where?

  • Humid Continental

    • Inland locations, further N, longer harsher winters

    • Veg = Mixed forests – but evergreens out# in N


  • High latitude

    High Latitude

    • Subarctic

      • Bitter-cold winters

      • Summers short/cool

      • > temp vary variation

      • permafrost

      • Veg = needles evergreens

  • Tundra

    • Winter darkness

    • No roots

    • Veg = Low shrub, short grasses, mosses

  • Ice Caps

    • Snow, ice 2 miles thick!


  • Highland

    Highland

    • Natural vegetation varies with elevation

    • High Mountain areas


    The k ppen system

    The Köppen System


    What is the k ppen system

    What is the Köppen System?

    • Widely used system that classifies climate according to:

      • annual and monthly averages of temperature

      • annual and monthly averages of precipitation

    • Devised by Walter Köppen (1846-1940); updated and modified by Köppen until his death.

    • Continues to be modified by geographers today!


    K ppen s major climates

    Köppen’s major climates:

    • Tropical Climates (A)

    • Dry Arid and Semiarid Climates (B)

    • Mesothermal Climates (C) – mild winter

    • Microthermal Climates (D) – severe winter

    • Polar Climates (E)

    • Highland (H)

      http://www.uwmc.uwc.edu/geography/100/koppen_web/koppen_map.htm


    Climate subcategories

    Climate subcategories

    • Each category is further divided into sub-categories based on temperature and precipitation.

    • For example, in a Dfa climate:

      • D = microthermal climate

      • f = feucht (German for “moist”)

      • a = warmest avg. summer month above 22° C

      • Dfa = humid-continental, hot-summer climate in the microthermal D category.


    The k ppen system pros cons

    Pros:

    Uses temperature and precipitation which are easy to measure

    Temperature and precipitation directly affect humans.

    Corresponds with vegetation regions.

    Cons:

    Only uses averages which does not take into account subtle changes from place to place.

    Ignores wind, cloud cover, intensity of precipitation, and humidity.

    The Köppen System: Pros & Cons


    Climographs

    Climographs

    • Graphic means of giving info on mean monthly temperature and rainfall for a select location or station

    • Usually two parts

      • Annual temperature curve (red)

      • Precipitation bars (blue)


    Earth s climate systems

    Annual Climatology: Green Bay, WI (GRB)

    Elev: 687 ft    Lat: 44o 29'N    Long: 88o 08'W

    Figure 1: Average Temperatures and Precipitation 1971-2000. (NCDC Data)


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